main difference between ethics and other disciplines
other disciplines state the cause and consequence of problems and describe human behavior. does not address what people ought to do just what they do.
every available option is morally undesirable and decision can not be avoided or postponed (lie to save a life?)
4 parts of moral point of view
-to subscribe to normative judgements about actions, principals & motives
-to universalize judgements concerning morally relevant similar situations
-to formulate ethical views in a free impartial and enlightened way
-Syndersis Rule: to promote the good and avoid the evil
moral practices and beliefs are non-universal and vary from culture to culture and different times
PROBLEM: doesn't distinguish diversity in particulate moral practices (Holocaust example)
moral beliefs are completely dependent on cultural conditions PROBLEM: to believe in this, we are too influenced culturally. If this is so, then this thesis is also caused by and influenced by our culture.
moral language simply expresses and perhaps arouses emotion, so that nothing we say in moral terms is either true or false about anything. Vent our feelings.
regard our own morality as superior and our own rational approach as best. Probelem with this is that even a christian will expose moral failure of their own people.
pursuit of pleasure for its own sake often results not in pleasure but frustration and istraction
the right thing to do is to look out for my own interest. we are morally required to make ourselves as happy as possible "ought to do what is in my own interest"
a method of working out the sum total of pleasure by an act, and thus the total value of its consequence. Which act has best tendency
unconditional. it commands us independently of our desire or utilitarian concerns. We simply ought to treat people as and ends in themselves not just a means.
distinction between Bentham and Mill
Bentham proposed hedonic. calc. (everyone seeks their own pleasure). Mill rejected this and believed its not just a consequential matter but appeals the dignity.