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Confucianism

the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity...Confucius saw women as lower than men and was extremely sexist toward them

mandate of heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source

right to rebellion

once a dynasty had lost the mandate of heaven, subjects felt they had gained this right.

Dynastic Cycle

the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties

Daoism

philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events

Legalism

In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)

Tang Taizong

(627- 649) He reconquerored the northern and western land that China had since the decline of the Han Dynasty. He started the achievements of the Tang Dynasty.

Wu Zhao

the only woman to ever declare herself empress, she was a member of the Tang Dynasty; takes over when Li Shimin dies; she used trickery to get power, cuts taxes, raises salaries of government officials, encourages trade and buddhism, takes korea as a tributary state, reforms the civil service exams, builds more school for more job opprotunities, takes critism from Li Bo and improves

Buddhism

the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth

civil service exam

Confucian exam to acquire a position in the Chinese bureaucracy

gentry class

high class who often became scholar officials

scholar officials

elite, educated members of the government (Had to take an exam to become this)

Li Bo

Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.

Du Fu

a famous chinese poet who wrote "spring landscape" and his poems were base on the suffering of his own life

Genghis Kan

Unified China and used cruelty as a weapon and was feared yet respected.

Mongols

A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)

Khanate

one of several separate territories into which Ghenghis Khan's empire was split, each under the rule of one of his sons.

Kublai Khan

Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China

Yuan Dynasty

Chinese Dynasty established by Kublai Khan and the Mongols

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

Hongwu

First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry

Yongle

Reign period of Zhu Di (1360-1424), the third emperor of the Ming Empire (r. 1403-1424).Sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's borders to trade and travel (355)

Forbidden City

a walled section of Beijing that encloses the palace that was formerly the residence of the emperor of China

Zheng he

An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)

Xia Dynasty

2100-1600 BCE, first dynasty

Shang Dynasty

1600-1050 BCE, second dynasty, one of the three dynasties that "marked the beginning of Chinese civilizations"

Zhou Dynasty

1046-256 BCE, third dynasty, "warring states" period, governed by a system similar to feudalism

Qin Dynasty

221-206 BCE, ruled harshly but also created a unitary state and centralized administration

Han Dynasty

206 BCE-220 CE, modified the foundation of imperial order, introduced civil service exam

Period of Disunity

220-589 CE, a time when the empire was fragmented

Sui Dynasty

581-618 CE, China reunified after it had been divided for 400 years...after two major defeats, this dynasty was overtaken by rebels

Tang Dynasty

618-907 CE, the imperial dynasty of China and a time of cultural evolution, fell when farmers rebelled and the Turks drove the Tang armies out of Asia and took control of the Silk Road

Song Dynasty

960-1279 CE, reunified China and was a time of great accomplishments such as economic and social changes and the monetization of the economy

Yuan Dynasty

1279 CE, founded by the Mongols and centered in its capital, Beijing.

Ming Dynasty

1368-1644 CE, made important economic and social relations

Middle Kingdom

the idea that China was the center of everything

Sui Wendy

first emperor of the Sui dynasty (which was the foundation for the two golden ages), reunited North and South. ended turmoil from the Han collapse but DIDN'T restore glory

Sui Yangdi

second emperor of Sui; completes Grand Canal; high taxes and forced labor spur hostility resulting in his assassination in 618

role of women in china

subordinate to men, property of their fathers until married (when husbands got property of their wives) and had their feet bound as a symbol of nobility

foot binding

a custom which many Chinese women engaged in, involving the binding of a young girls feet with the ultimate goal of forming the feet into small "lotus" feet

Landscape Painting

...

Poetry

people exchanged poems as we do today with letters, and poems were read as a form of entertainment

Li Bo

chinese poet who wrote fun and lighthearted poems

Du Fu

chinese poet who experienced the darker side of life and failed the civil service exam, but channeled this energy into his poems and wrote deeper pieces that many could relate to

Chinese Inventions

writing, paper, gunpowder, magnetic compass, "moveable type" used by printers

Mongols

nomads in northern Eurasia who established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. the nation eventually weakened and nobles took over.

Genghis Khan

Mongolian Emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (1162-1227)

Khanates

the 4 divisions of the Mongol empire

Khanate of the Great Khan

the khanate that included Mongolia and Chins

Kublai Khan

Genghis Khan's grandson, named the Great Khan in 1260, founded a new dynasty (the Yuan)

Marco Polo

explorer from Venice who visited Khan in China, and stayed 17 years... he was then captured and imprisoned, and told his stories of travels in China while in jail

Yuanzhang

founded Ming Dynasty

Ming Hongwu

Yuanzhang's new name, after founding the Ming Dynasty

Yongle

...

Treasure Ship Voyages

voyages that were taken to explore, expand, trade, and show off China's wealth. they succeeded in these goals, but lost money. the voyages ended because

Admiral Zhenghe

sent by Ming emperor on an expedition to show off Chinese power and wealth with a huge fleet

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