One of the two major divisions of Geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
the study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders
One of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
pertaining to space on the Earth's surface; sometimes used as a synonym for geographic.
physical location of geographic phenomena across space
the design of spatial distribution
the study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. Among other things, _______ _______ looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distributions of diseases.
An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
Regional outbreak of a disease.
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
Developed by the Geographic Educational National Implemention Project (GENIP), the _____ ______ of geography are location, human-environment, region, place, and movement.
1st theme, the geographical position of people & things on the Earths surface affects what happens & why
A logical attempt to explain the ______ional pattern of the economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural _____ _______ contained in the von Thünen model is a leading example.
The second theme of geography as defined by the geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation project reciprocal relationships between human and environment
3rd theme of geography as defined by the geography educational national implementation project; an area on the Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon
The fourth theme of Geography as defined by the GENIP; uniqueness of a location.
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
perception of place
Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures
The fifth theme of Geography as defined by the GENIP; the mobility of people, goods and ideas across the surface of the planet.
Both Complementarity ( A condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/ or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands) and Intervening Opportunity (The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away).
measurement of space between two places
The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certian location from other locations. ________ varies from place to place and can be measured.
the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
The overall appearance of an area. Most _______ are comprised of a combination of natural and human-induced influences.
The visible imprint of human activity and ______ on the ________. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequnetially imprinted on the ______ by the activities of various human occupants.
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude
Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute of the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
The position of place of a certian item on the surface of the Earth as expresed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England.
global positioning system
Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
a hunt for a cache, the GPS coordinates which are placed on the Internet by other geocachers
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space
the space within which daily activity occurs
to reach a broad conclusion avoiding specifics
A general map depicting a certain piece of info. such as precipitation.
method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
geographic information system
a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected,recorded,storedretrieved,manipulated,analyzed,and displayed to the user.
A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region.
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity.
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
The expansion and adoption of a cultural element from its place of origin to a wider area
time- distance decay
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certian innovations; ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population and the numbers of those influenced rapidly increase
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person - analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones.
The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development.
line on a map connecting points equal temperature values
geographic viewpoint - a response to determinism that holds the human decision making
The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
An approach to studying nature - society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
arithmetic population density
the population of a country or region expressed as a average per unit area.
physiological population density
the number of people per unit of arable land
maps where one dot represents a certain number of people
term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world
a periodic and official count of a countries population.
the time required for a population to double in size
the rapid growth of the worlds human population during the past century, attended by even shorted doubling times and accelerating rates of increase.
population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths
crude birth rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population.
crude death rate
the number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population.
restrictive population policies
governmental policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
Multistage model based on Western Europe's experience of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization.
stationary population level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as martial status and education.
visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group is represented by a bar.
infant mortality rate
a figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first of their lives in a given population.
child mortality rate
a figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.
a figure indicating how long on average a person may be expected to live.
Immune system disease caused by HIV which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off diseases.
generally long lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.
expansive population policies
government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
eugenic population policies
governmental policies that are designed to favor one racial sector over others.
description of locations on the Earth's surface where people live.
approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
primary economic activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment-such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
secondary economic activity
economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
tertiary economic activity
economic activity associated with the provision of services-such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs
quaternary economic activity
service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
genetic modification of a plant that its reproductive success depends on human intervention.
crop that is reproduced by a cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants.
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
First agricultural revolution
dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for the local consumption, not for trade; making just enough food for the family and or friends
cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland.
cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland.
Second Agricultural Revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the industrial revolution, it witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting and storage of farm produce.
von Thünen model
a model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability that determining the force in how far a crop locates from the market.
Third Agricultural Revolution
currently in the progress, it has as its principal orientation the development of genetically modified organisms
the recently successful development of higher yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to the increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and the food needs.
genetically modified organisms
crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
rectangular survey system
also called the public land survey, the system was used by the US land Office survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
township and range system
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
metes and bounds system
a system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams of trees. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
longlot survey system
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads or canals
system which the eldest son in a family-or, in exceptional cases, daughter-inherits all of a dying parent's land
term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology
dependence on a single agricultural commodity
Köppen climatic classification system
developed by Wladimir Köppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation
areas of the world with similar climatic characteristics
production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts such as leather and wool
specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
general term for the businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agriculture industry
quinary economic activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples include scientific research and high-level management
series of links connecting the many places of production & distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged in the world market
with respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare
gross national product (GNP)
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. it includes all goods and services produced by corporations & individuals of a country whether or not they're located within a country
gross domestic product (GDP)
the total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year
gross national income (GNI)
calculates the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country as a more accurate way of measuring a country's wealth in the context of a global economy
per capita GNI
the gnp of a country divided by its population
the legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's GNP; as opposed to informal economy
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that governmen'ts GNP; as opposed to a formal economy
a model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow; maintains that all countries go through 5 interrelated stages of developement which cluminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
the geographical situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently
the entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise
a general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system
a structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations(especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and lmit the extent to which regions can develop
when a poorer country ties the value of its currency to that of a wealthier country, or when it abandons its currency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as its own
theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his 3-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
with reference to Immanuel Wallerstein's world-systems theory, the division of the world into the core, the periphery, and the semi-periphery as a means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy
when a family sends a child or an adult to a labor recruiter in hopes that the labor recruiter will send money, and the family member will earn money to send home
structural adjustment loans
loans granted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi-periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country
a disease carried from 1 host to another by an intermediate host
vectored disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in their saliva and which kills approximately 150,000 children in the global periphery each month
export processing zones (EPZ's)
zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
the term given to zones in northern mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S market. the low wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods
special economic zones (SEZs)
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
North American free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross border movement of goods and services between countries
the encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins where plant cover and soils ae threatened by desiccation- through overuse, in part because of inexorable shifts in the Earth's environmental zones
island of development
place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
international organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues
program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small buisinesses
Occupational Structure of the Labor Force
Percentage of workers employed in various sectors of the economy.
Productivity per Worker
Summing production over the course of a year and dividing it by the total number of people int the labor force
Transportation and communications facilities per Person
Reduces railway,road,airline connections, telephone, radio, television and so forth to a per capita index
A number of of dependents young and old that eaceh100 employed people must support.
5-Step Modernization Model
1. Traditional (no country is still in this stage).
2. preconditions of takeoff (many are part of )
3. Takeoff (Demographic dividend)
4. Drive to maturity (country begins to modernize)
5.High Mass Consumption (West)
the layout of the city, its physical form and structure, used to study the city
a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics
the buildup of the central city and the surburban realm-the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city
the people were involved in agriculture, lived near subsistence levels, producing just enough to get by
agricultural production in exess of that with the producer needs for his or her own substinence and that of his or her family in which is then sold for consumption by others. one of two components together with social stratification that able the formation of cites
the differation of society into classes based of wealth, power, production, and prestigehone of the two components along with agricultural surplus which enables the formation of cities
group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others
first urban revolution
the innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths
region of great cities located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; chronologically the first urban hearth, dating to 3500, and which was founded in the Fertile Crescent
Nile River Valley
chronologically, the second urban hearth, dating to 3200 BCE
Indus River Valley
chronologically, the third urban hearth, dating to 220 BCE
Huang He and Wei
rivers in present-day China; it was the confluence of these two rivers where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was established around 1500 BCE
chronologically the fifth and last urban hearth, dating to 200 BCE
literally "high point of the city." the upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes
in ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaigns, socialized and traded
the internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting
the focal point of ancient Roman life combining the functions of the ancient Greek acropolis and agora
the external locational attributes of a place; its relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places
region adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant
in a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy
central place theory
proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another
the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions of the U.S.
the division of a city into different regions or zones (e.g. residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (e.g. housing or manufacturing)
area of a city with a relatively uniform land use (e.g. industrial or residential ).
central business district (CBD)
the downtown heart of a central city, it is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
the urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older and original city that is surounded by newer suburbs
a subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.
movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual).
concentric zone model
a structual model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center
a term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the U.S. away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (less than 30 years old)
a spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the U.S. It is shown to be a widely dispersed multicentered metropolis consisting of incereasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the CBD
developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene
the very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are conrolled by gangs or drug lords
developed by geographer T.G. ____, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium sized cites of Southeast Asia
unplanned slum development on the margins of cities dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard
legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the U.S., areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use.
a discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominely
rapid change in the racial composition of residential clocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting outmigration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of properties.
the transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
the rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents
homes bought in many American suburbs within intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes, often referred to as McMansions
homes referred to as such because of their "supersize" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburb
unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning
outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs
restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America, they are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as apposed to a formal economy
dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy
a country's largest city--ranking atop the urban hierarchy--most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well.
spaces of consumption
areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry
A subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface.
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community
In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
A principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
The right of a state to defend soverign territory against incurrsion from other states
Peace of Westphalia
Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years's War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion
A protectionist policy of European states during the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries that promoted a state's economic position in the contest with other countries
A tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes
A recognized member of the modern state system wherein the nation and state occupy the same territory
Government based on the principle that the people are the ultimate sovereign and have the final say over what happens within the state
State with more than one nation within its borders
Nation that stretches across borders and across states
A nation that does not have a state
Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place
Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization
Economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit
Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth that periphery processes in the world economy
Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth that core processes in the world economy
Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
In the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means
Forces that tend to unify a country-such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological obectives, and a common faith
Forces that tend to divide a country-such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
Highly centralized government where the capital city serves as a focus of power
A government where the state is organized into territories, which have control over government policies and funds
Movement of power from the central government to region governments within the state
System where in each representative is elected from a territorially defined district
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
the process by which the majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuring control by the majority of each of the districts
In districts, where the majority of the people are from the minority
Drawing voting districts to benefit one political group over another
Based on grid system. For example, U.S. and Canada is a certain latitude
Agreed on a geographic landscape. For example, U.S. and Mexico is the Rio Grande
This states that if you control East Europe, you control the world
Process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians
World order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
Opposite of devolution, 3 or more members, for mutual benefit of shared goals. Examples-EU, NATO, NAFTA, OPEC, and OEEC
money migrant send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer coutnries
Movement - for example, nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
the space within which daily activity occurs
movement among a definite set of places. Ex of cyclic movement.
Movement - for example, college attendance or military service - that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
a common type of periodic movemetn involving millions of worker in the US and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross internationl borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances
a seasonal periodic movement of pastorarists and their livestock between highland and lowland
another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million US citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
a change in residence intended to be permanent
human movement involving movement across international boundaries
human movement within a nation-state, such as going westward and southward movements in the US
human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
laws of migration
developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, 5 laws that predict the flow of migrants
a mathmatical prediction of the interation of places, the interation being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
positive conditions and perceptions that induce people to new locations from other areas
the effects of distance on interactions, generally greater the distance the less interaction
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success
pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links
Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.
a person examining a region that is unknown to them
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
islands of development
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term
people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
people who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee
refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country
shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another country
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating
social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes. Notions of gender differences - that is, what is considered "feminine" or "masculine" - vary greatly over time and space
defined by Gillian Rose as "how we make sense of ourselves;" how people see themselves at different scales
constructing an identity by first defining the "other" and then by defining ourselves as "not the other"
a categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas that some biologiacal differences (especially skin color) are more important than others (e.g., height, etc.), even thought the latter miht have more significance in therms of human activity. With its roots in sixteenth-century England, the term is closely associated with European colonialism because of the impact of the development on global understandings of racial differences
freaquently referred to as a system of attitude toward visible differences in indiviguals, racism is an ideology of difference that ascribes (predominantly negative) significance and meaning to culturally, socially, and politically constructed ideas based on phenotypical features
defined by Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as "the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment."
invasion and succession
processes by which new immigrants move to a city and domanate or take over a area or neighoborhoods occupied by older immagrent groups
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture
defined by Doreen Massey and Pat Jess as "social relations stretched out"
the fourth theme of Geography as defined by the GENIP; uniqueness of a location
in terms of place, whether the place is designed for or claimed by men or women
theory defined by geographers Glen Elder and Lawrence Knopp, and Heidi Nast that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the poitical engagement of "queers" with the heteronormative
in the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of a bride
defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood; referring to barrio, the Spanish word for neighborhood
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, customs, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities
The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities, or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence.
time- space compression
A term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
practice routinely followed by a group of people
with respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own
Cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies
the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit.
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape, The visible imprint of human activity on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequnetially imprinted on the earth by the activities of various human occupants.
a group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
the seeking out of regional culture in response to uncertainty of the modern world
defined by the geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitian city and constructed by or composed of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
global- local continuum
The notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa.
non- material culture
the beliefs practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence
in the context of local cultures or customs, the accuracy with which the single sterotypical or typecast image or experience conveys an otherwise dynamic and complex local culture or its customs
folk- housing regions
a region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area
the area where an idea or cultural trait originates
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
the spatial trajectory through which the cultural traits or other phenomena spread
a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society; hundreds exist
a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
local or regional characteristics of a language; has distictive grammer and vocabualary
a geographic boundary within which a particular feature occurs
the ability of two people to understand each other when speaking
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialect nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward torward its origin
linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America through parts of Asia to Australia
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants "backward" toward the original language
language without any native speakers
technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language
language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages, the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
the opposite of language convergence; a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages
the collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages
three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families:Europe's Indo-European languages from Anatolia (present-day Turkey); North Africa and Arabian languages (from the western arc of the Fertile Crescent); and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (from the eatern arc of the Fertile Crescent)
one major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and dfferentiation of Indo-European tongues
hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and on into the Balkans
Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed
Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south
Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croation, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic
when parts of two languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue
countries in which only one language is spoken
countries in which more than one language is spoken
in multilingual countries the language selected, often by the educated and politcally powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government
the language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, or prevalence of use in commerce and trade
the fourth theme of geography; uniqueness of a location
A system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities
The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife. A secular state is the opposite of a theocracy.
Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe.
Belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe.
The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth.
A belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope. Adherents of universalizing religious systems often believe that their religion represents universal truths, and in some cases great effort is undertake in evangelism and missionary work.
A religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people. Unlike universalizing religions, adherents of ethnic religions do not actively seek converts through evangelism or missionary work.
One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. Hinduism is unique among the world's religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins.
The strict social segregation of people-specifically in India's Hindu society-on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Religion founded in the 6th century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; ad never hurting another person or animal. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict social hierarchy maintained by Hinduism.
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Religion believed to have been founded by Lao-Tsu focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature.
Literally "wind-watered." The Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities. Structures and objects are positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi ("life-breath") in favorable ways.
A philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture.
Religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god. According to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which the Jews agree to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people, the Jews.
From the Greek "to disperse", a term describing forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place. Originally denoting the dispersal of Jews, it is increasing applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary relocation of Black peoples during the slave trade or Chinese peoples outside of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong.
The movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land.
Religion based on the teachings of Jesus. According to Christian teaching, Jesus is the son of God, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's plan.
Eastern Orthodox Church
One of the three major branches of Christianity , a second of the tree major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: two western regions centered in Rome, and two eastern regions centered in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey.) It is still reviving from Ottoman blows.
Roman Catholic Church
One of three major branches of Christianity, a second of the three major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: two western regions centered in Rome, and two eastern regions centered in Constantinople(now Istanbul, Turkey.) It forbids abortion and artificial birth contol. Teaches the infallibility of the Pope the Supreme head of the Church.
One of the three major branches of Christianity. Following the widespread societal changes in Europe starting in the 1300s CE, many adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to question the role of religion in their lives and opened the door to the Protestant Reformation wherein John Huss, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others challenged many of the fundamental teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
The youngest of the major world religions, it is based on the teachings of Muhammad, born in Mecca in 571 CE. According to its teaching, Muhammad revived the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelations during which Muhammad spoke the verses of the Qu'ranic (Koran), their holy book.
Adherents to the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalist. They believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shiites in accepting the traditions (Sunna) of Muhammad as authoritative.
Adherents of one of the two main divisions of Islam, They represent the Persian (Iranian) variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali.
Community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman-a religious leader, teacher, healer and visionary. At times, an especially strong shaman might attract a regional following. However, most shaman remain local figures.
Voluntary travel by an adherent to a sacred sight to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
Place or space people infuse with religious meaning.
Tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer.
The Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Boundaries between the world's major faith.
Boundaries within a single major faith.
The systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation.
The space within which daily activity occurs.
Religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state property.
Religious Fundamentalism carried to the point of violence.
The system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu'ranic law. Unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, It is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran.
A doctrine within Islam. Commonly translated as "Holy War" Jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu'ran.