are the main events in the lifetime of an organism of a particular species
small bodied, short lifespan, reproduce early, produce many offspring, lack parental care, high infant mortality
large bodied, long lifespan, reproduce later, produce few offspring, intensive parenttal care, low infant mortality
Types of Axsexual Reproduction:
1. Binary Fusion, Budding, Gemmulation,and Fragmentaton.
What is Asexual Binary Fission Reproduction?
It is the division of the body into 2 approimately equal parts.
Where is Binary fission seen?
It is seen in protozoans such as: amoeba, flagellates, and cilliates
What is Asexual Budding Reproduction?
The unequal division of an organism, where the offspring develop as an OUTGROWTH (bud) from its parent.
Where is budding seen?
It is observed in colonial hydrozoans.
What is Asexual Gemmulation Reproduction?
It is forming clusters of cells that are surrounded by a protective capsule called gemmules.
Where is gemmulation seen?
This strategy is used byy freshwater sponges to survive the winter
What is Asexual Fragmentation Reproducton?
When the fragments that break from a muticellular animal are capable of developing into a new complete individual.
Who is capable of Fragmentation?
Poriferans, Cnidarians, and Echinoderms are capable of this.
What sex produces the smaller motile gametes?
What sex produces the larger gamete?
What cells are formed by a process called spermatogenesis?
What produces 4 spermatids that later mature into spermoza?
spermatids turn into?
what has a nucleus, an acrosome, a mitchondria, and a flagellum
A sperm cell
what is formed in a process called oogenesis?
eggs or ova are formed
in human females what does meisos produce?
1 functional ovum and 3 polar bodies
additional layers and nurtrients are added as the egg?
what is the most common form of sexual reproduction in animals ?
bisexual or bi-parental reproduction
Most vertebrates and invertebrates are species with seperate sexs called
dioecious, where one partent contributes one gamete for fertilization
When animals have fully functional male and female reprotective organs in the same individual.. that is called
self fertilization is avoided by
what is a reproductive strategy where individuals develop from unfertilized eggs called
in parthenogenesis the number of chromosomes in the ovum must duplicate from
haploid to diploid after meiosis
parthengenosis is seen in
some fish, amphibians, and some lizards. whiptail lizard of sw us
sexual reproduction pros
increases genetic diversity, and increaes the chance of survival in enviromental changes
sexual reproduction cons
cost of meiosis to darwinian fitness, and cost of producing males
asexual reproduction pros
offspring gets 100% of parents genes, practical for non motile or reclusive animals, and faster population growth
asexual reproduction cons
clones have lower probability of survival if the enviroment changes
what are the two basic components in the reproductive system?
primary and secondary organs
primary organs are
organs such as gonads that produce gametes, and the female ovaries are the female gonads
secondary organs are
for maturation, storage, and release of gametes
what is the process where individuals of one sex chooses members of the opposite sex based on special characteristics?
what are the 3 females choice(s)?
nuptial gifts, extreme physical traits, behhavior traits.
the female gets to be picky because
she invests more in the reproductive process
why is there sex role reversals?
because the males have limited resources that females must compete for
why are male horses verty selective of the females they choose?
because they carry the fertilized eggs and the young fry after they hatch
what is intrasexual selection?
this is when individuals of the same sex compete among themselves to gain access to mates
In the intrasexual selection what do the sex do to compete against each other?
Physical fights, sperm competition first male advantage, sperm competition second male advantages.
intrasexual selection - physical fights
is when the males fight to establish a territory or recruit females to mate
intrasexual first male advantage at sperm competion
penis locking to make sure it goes in, mating wither butterfly leaving a smell others will not be attracted to, putting a type of plug to assure no other sperm can get in
intrasexual second male advantage at sperm competiton
pecking out sperm, shoveling out sperm with penis, and producing a dud sperm to wash out vagina and then releasing real sperm
what are the 2 types of fertilization?
External (porifera, cnidaria) and Internal (plathelminthes and up)
The formation of the zygote is responsible for:
1. restoring the diploid chromosome number and 2. activating embryo development
egg recognition proteins help
a sperm identify the egg of the same species
the fertilizationo by more than one sperm is
if more than one sperm enter the egg the result is
death of the egg
polyspermy is prevented by
1. electric potential change along membrane, 2. cortical granule secretions and osmotic gradient, 3 hardening of the vitelline envelop to form a fertilization membrane
after the sperm enters the egg,
the sperm looses its flagellum. the nucleus expands and becomes a pronucleus, and fuses with the egg pronucleus and forms the zygote
what happens in cleavage?
zygote divides into blastomeres and there is no cell growth, all the cells together are the same size as the zygote
what is a blastomere?
a cluster of small cells
what are the forms of cleavage"
Holoblastic(complete) cleavage, and Meroblastic (incomplete) cleavage
what is holoblastic clevage
complete cleavage, in ISOLECTITHAL and MESOlECTITHAL eggs
what is meroblastic cleavage?
it is incomplete coverage, in TELOLECITHAL and CENTROLECITHAL- cells divide atop an undivided mass of yolk
before cleavage begins there are how many poles in the embryo?
what are the two poles called?
vegetal pole and animal pole of greater metabolic activity
what does the vegteal pole consist of?
yolf. it is yolk rich
the animal pole if filled with what
more mitochondria and ribosomes
what is the result of cleavage?
you have hundreds or thousands of cells and the blastula has formed
whats the blastocyst?
the blastula in mammals is also known as
the blastula cells are arranged around a central fluid filled cavity called?
the blastula stages are seen in
what phylum does not continue gastrulation to develop 2 or more germ layers?
the ectoderm and endoderm are
the two initial layers
whats the gut cavity called?
what happens if the archenteron opens only at the blastopore?
the animal develops an incomplete guy
how does a complete gut form?
the archenteron grows further inward until it fuses with the ectoderm
animals with 2 germ layers are called?
what animals are diplobastic?
sea jellies, sea anemones, and comb jellies
what is a triploblastic animal?
an animal that has three germ layers
what is the third germ layer called?
what is the coelom?
a body cavity COMPLETELY surrounded by the mesoderm tissue
what is responsible for hair, nail, and epithellum glands?
what is the responsible for lining of mouth, enamel of teeth, and inner ear?
what is responsible for the nasel and offactory eqithelium?
what is the responsible for the brain, spinial cord, and motor nerves?
what is responsible for sensory ganglia and nerves, adrenal medulla?
what is responsible for sympethetic ganglia, SKULL, gill arches, and denfine of teeth?
what is responsible for the notecord?
whats responsible for the lining of thoracic and abdominal cavities?
what is responsible for the blood, bone marrow, encothelium of blood vessels and lymphatics?
what is responsible for the skeletal musles, bone and cartilage of skelton, dermis, and connective tissue?
what is responsible for the organs of reproductive organs (
uterus, kidney, gonads, reproductive ducts)
what is responsible for the epithelium of respiratory tract?
what is responsible for the pharynx (pharyngeal pouches, thyroid, and perathyroid)?
what is responsible for the liver and pancreas?
what is responsible for the epithellium of urogential system
anus forms first and mouth second
whose radial cleavage is perpindicular to previous clevage furrow
Enterocoely: mesoderm and coelom form simultaneously by infolding is in what?
whose regulative development: cell-cell intraction to form tissues?
whose mouth forms first and anus second?
spiral cleavage is at a 45 degree angle from previous cleavage furrow in the
coelom forms by ingression and splitting from blastopre in the
mosaic develop cells become tissues based on mRNA and regulatory proteins they contain. is in
who are deuterostomes?
chordata and echinoderm phylums?
who are the protosomoes?
the molluscas, segmented worms, analidas ?
all the cells in an adult animal posses the same :
assortment of chromosomes and genes
what is cloning
the making of gentically identical organisms using the nucleus of adult somatic cells
the reason cells differentiate is because
not all genes in the nucleus are active at the same time
cell differentiation also requires:
the production of determinative proteins and communication between neighboring cells as seen in fruit flys
Gene expression has pattern formation that
determines front-back, left-right, head-tail, can be accomplished by Bicoid and Pitx2
gene expression has segmentation genes are
gap genes, pair-rule genes, and segment/polarity genes.
are body regions
pair rule genes take care of
segment/polarity genes take care of
organ position within a segment
gene regulation is
the master control genes
master control genes
activate or suppress other genes to produce the correct organs in a segment
master control gene in fruit flies
master control gene in all other animals
the role of genes are
nuclear equivalence,cell differentiantion, gene expression, and gene regulation
a group of animals including reptiles, birds, and mammals whose embryos develop inside a membranous sac called the amnion
what is the structure of the Amniotic Egg?
1. the yolk sac procides nourishment 2. the fluid filled amnion provides protection 3. the allantois stores wastes 4. the chorion covers the embryonic system and helps with gas exchange
the mammalian placenta and chorionic vili provide:
nourishment to the embryo
what is the source of stem cells that form blood and lymp cells
the yolk sac
what contributes stem cells to the umbilical cod
what forms most of the placenta?
memebers of the animal kingdom are descriebed as
eumetazoans because their bodies consist of many cells
what are the 5 organization of animal complexity?
protoplastic grade (protozoans), cellular grade organization (porifera), Cell-tissue grade(cnidaria), Tissue-organ grade (platyhelmenethes), Orgran-system grade (nematodes and up)
protoplastic grade is
cellular grade organization is
tissue-orgn grade organization is
organ-system grade organization is
nematodas and up
what refers to balaneced proportions between two sides of the body?
spherical symmetry is
any plane is symmetrial
radial symmetry is
two or more planes of symmetry
bilateral symmetry is
single plane of symmetry
what are the 2 characteristics that bilaterally symmetrical animals show?
Cephalization and Segmentation
what is cephalization?
the presence of a head region with sensory organs
what is segmentation?
metamerism; the serial repetition of body segments along the body length
the belly (front)
near the body middle
away from the middle
what are the 3 embryonic cavities?
Blastocoel, Archenteron, and the coelom
what is the blastocoel
internal fluid filled cavity of the blastocyst. this is no openign and no gut (sponges)
The Archenteron (embryonic cavity)
has blastopore opening. the endoderm forms the gut cavity
the Coelom (embryonic cavity)
is a cavity surrounded by mesoderm cells, houses the animals organs (mollusks and higer)
extracellular components in the metazoan body structure:
1. fluids 2. extracellular matrix
what are fluids?
in animals with closed circulatory systems there are two kinds: blood plasma and interstitial fluid
what is the extracelluar matrix?
cartilage, bone, loose connective tissue, and cuticle(exoskelton)
Cellular componts in metazoan body structure
epithelial tissue, connective tisssue, nervous tissue, muscular tissue
what does the epithelial tissue do?
It protects and covers the external surfaces, internal body cavites, and inner and outer linings of organs-
what other things do epithelial tissue do?
secrete cellular products, absorb nutrients, and use cilla to move substances inside the body ducts
what provides anchoring and support to the body organs and structures?
what types of connective tissues are there?
loose, and dense connective tissue
loose tissue example
membranes that attach organs to organs
dense tissue example
tentons and cartiledge
what detects internal and external stimuli and conducts messages between the brain and all the body organ
the nervous system
what specializes in the body movements and organ contractions?
what is muscular tissue made up of?
cells called muscle fibers
what are the 2 types of muscular tissue?
smooth and striated muscle, skeletal and cardiac
what are animals that develop from an embryo with mesoderm are called?
triploblastic (3 germ layers)
has no coelom, mesoderm fills the blastocoel
whats an example of a acoelomate?
blastocoel persists and endoderm lines outer edge
two types eneterocoelus and schizocoelus, mesodem surrounds coelomic cavity
what are enerocoelus?
local chemical messengers:
act within the same cell or adjacent cell. do noy accumulate
what are two examples of local chemical messengers?
histamine (inflammatory), growth factor (healing)
what is produced by neurons acts on adjacent cells ?
examle of neurotransmitter
serotonin (feel happy transmitter)
what are chemicals produced by ductless endocrine glands and released to the bloodstream
what are behavior altering chemicals produced by ducts to the enviroment called?
phermones ex-bombykol, trail and alarm pheromones
horomones are released by
a hormone signals the release of another and in turn
suppress the initial homorone
the negative feedback loop in horomones maintains
no hormones are in
cnidarians produce growth-promoting hormones that
stimulate budding, regeneration and growth
platyhelminthes, molluscs and annelids produce neurosecretions and hormones that regulates:
gametogenesis, growth and differeniation, and water regulation
what are the 2 arthropod hormones
ecdysone and juvenile hormone
what is the ecdysone?
its produced by the Prothoracic Gland and controls molting and ecdysis
what is the juvenile hormone
its produced by the Corpora Allata controls development behavior and metamorphosis
Pineal glad produces
MELATONIN, controls day/night cycles (circadian rhythms)
NEUROHORMONES, that control water balance, blood pressure, and muscle activity
PROLACTIN, controlling parental behaviors, reproductive migrations (salmon), and brooding behavior (spawning)
thyroid gland produces
THYROXINE t4 and TRIDOTHYRONINE t3 control the growth rate, metabolism, and tissue differentiation in vertebrates
Ultimobranchial glands produce
regulates calcium concentration in blood
Adrenal gland and Chromaffin tisssue produce
epinephrine and nonrepinephrine tht control fight or flight repsonses