chapter 3 biology

Created by x_BarryAllen_x 

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Biosphere

the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist

population

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

species

(biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

community

(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

ecology

the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment

ecosystem

a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

biome

group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities

biotoc factor

biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem

abiotic factor

physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem

autotroph

plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances

primary producer

Organisms that produce energy available for other organisms to eat

Photosynthesis

synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)

Chemosynthesis

synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water

Heterotroph

an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition

Scavenger

any animal that feeds on refuse and other decaying organic matter

Omnivore

a person who eats all kinds of foods

Decomposers

organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment

Detritivore

organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter

Food chain

(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member

Photoplankton

small photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean

Food web

(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains

Zooplankton

animal constituent of plankton

Trophic level

each step in a food chain or food web

Ecological pyramid

diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web

Biomass

the total mass of living matter in a given unit area

Biogeochemical cycle

process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another

Nutrient

any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue

Nitrogen fixation

process in which bacteria convert nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds plants can use to make proteins

Denitrification

conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas

Limiting nutrient

single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem

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