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Which of the following is supported by research on childhood injuries?
A) North American children from advantaged families are at a greater risk for injury than are children in European
nations.
B) Childhood injury deaths in developing nations are 1.5 times as high as those in developed countries.
C) Safety devices, such as car seats and bicycle helmets, are readily available in developing nations, but they are rarely
used by parents.
D) Contrary to popular belief, girls are more likely to be injured than boys during play.

North American children from advantaged families are at a greater risk for injury than are children in European
nations.

Which of the following is supported by research on individual differences in motor skills?
A) Environmental factors have little impact on sex differences in motor skills.
B) Sex differences in motor skills decrease with age.
C) Participation in competitive sports at a young age fosters motor development.
D) Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical activities in their children.

Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical activities in their children.

According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is
A) egocentrism.
B) conservation.
C) animistic thinking.
D) dual representation.

egocentrisim

According to Piaget, magical thinking is common during the preschool years because
A) parents often read magical fairy tales to their children.
B) assigning human purposes to physical events helps young children develop representational thought.
C) young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.
D) it is more entertaining to young children than reasoning by analogy.

young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.

Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational children's thinking is characterized by __________
in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
A) dynamic transformation
B) centration
C) hierarchical classification
D) irreversibility

centration

One reason Piagetian problems do not always elicit responses reflecting preschoolers' true cognitive abilities is that they
contain
A) too many familiar elements.
B) unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information.
C) an insufficient amount of information for the young child to process.
D) too many real-world examples.

unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information.

_____________ refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the
precise features of communication.
A) The zone of proximal development
B) Guided participation
C) Discovery learning
D) Scaffolding

guided participation

Research on emotional self-regulation demonstrates that
A) the frequency of emotional outbursts increases during the preschool years.
B) preschoolers know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input.
C) fears are uncommon during the preschool years because young children have good self-regulatory skills.
D) preschoolers do not yet understand that they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input.

preschoolers know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input.

Research on friendships shows that
A) preschoolers interact in essentially the same ways with both friends and nonfriends.
B) preschoolers give more reinforcement to nonfriends than to friends.
C) most friendships during the preschool years are based on mutual trust.
D) the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.

the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.

Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all
characteristics
A) that increase a child's willingness to imitate a model's behavior.
B) of children's temperament that are necessary for moral development.
C) of inductive discipline.
D) of authoritarian child rearing.

that increase a child's willingness to imitate a model's behavior.

Research on the consequences of corporal punishment reveals that in African-American families,
A) the more mothers discipline physically in childhood, the less their teenagers display angry, acting out behavior.
B) when parents resort to physical punishment, they are often highly agitated and rejecting of the child.
C) the more mothers discipline physically in childhood, the more their teenagers display angry, acting out behavior.
D) physical punishment is generally considered wrong, as it contributes to poor self-esteem.

the more mothers discipline physically in childhood, the less their teenagers display angry, acting out behavior.

Coaching in __________ is an effective treatment for aggressive children.
A) associative play
B) emotional competence
C) social conventions
D) make-believe play

emotional competence

Which of the following fosters a mastery-oriented approach to learning?
A) small class size and cooperative learning
B) ability grouping and public displays of achievement
C) trait statements like "You're smart"
D) emphasis on grades over effort

small class size and cooperative learning

Appreciating mixed emotions helps children realize that
A) people's expressions may not reflect their true feelings.
B) negative emotions are more frequent than positive emotions.
C) positive and negative motions cannot be experienced simultaneously.
D) tone of voice is a more accurate predictor of emotion than facial expressions.

people's expressions may not reflect their true feelings.

_______ usually decline(s) in middle childhood.
A) Social comparisons
B) Understanding of social conventions
C) A desire for equality
D) Prejudice

prejudice

Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by
A) more often attributing girls' failures to insufficient effort and boys' failures to ability.
B) harshly punishing children for gender-atypical behavior.
C) praising girls for knowledge and boys for obedience.
D) behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.

behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.

Octavio feels satisfied with his gender assignment, which consequently makes him happy. Which of the following selfevaluations
reflects Octavio's gender identity?
A) gender contentedness
B) gender typicality
C) felt pressure to conform to gender roles
D) gender-atypical

gender contentedness

Which of the following is true about children's temperament and sex differences in adjustment to parental divorce?
A) Easy children are more often targets of parental anger and also cope less effectively with adversity.
B) In mother-custody family arrangements, girls are at greater risk than boys for serious adjustment problems.
C) Coercive maternal behavior and defiance on the part of sons are common in divorcing households.
D) Girls receive less emotional support than boys from teachers and peers.

Coercive maternal behavior and defiance on the part of sons are common in divorcing households.

In Case's neo-Piagetian theory, children acquire central conceptual structures
A) in an abrupt stagewise transition to logical thought.
B) once cognitive schemes are sufficiently automatic.
C) spontaneously in a systematic transition.
D) at about the same time, regardless of experience, culture, and schooling.

once cognitive schemes are sufficiently automatic.

The information-processing perspective
A) examines separate aspects of thinking.
B) fails to consider biological influences on cognitive development.
C) applies only to children in cultures having formal schooling.
D) focuses on overall cognitive change.

examines separate aspects of thinking.

Individuals skilled at ___________ can prevent their minds from straying to irrelevant thoughts.
A) organization
B) inhibition
C) metacognition
D) elaboration

inhibition

A major shortcoming of the componential approach is that it
A) overemphasizes the role of situational factors in intelligence.
B) regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child.
C) regards intelligence as entirely due to external forces.
D) overemphasizes the role of cultural and educational experiences in intellectual development.

regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child.

A major shortcoming of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences is that
A) neurological evidence for the independence of his abilities is weak.
B) it virtually ignores the role of cultural and learning opportunities in intellectual development.
C) it overemphasizes the idea of general intelligence.
D) it fails to account for biological contributions to intelligence.

neurological evidence for the independence of his abilities is weak.

Follow-up research on appearance versus reality problems suggests that young children
A) have trouble with the language of appearance-reality tasks.
B) have a general difficulty in distinguishing appearance from reality.
C) have an advanced understanding of dual representation.
D) fail appearance-reality tasks even when permitted to solve them nonverbally.

have trouble with the language of appearance-reality tasks

In Jody's preschool classroom, teachers introduce activities that build on children's current thinking but do not try to
hasten development by imposing new skills before children indicate interest. This preschool emphasizes the Piagetian
principle of
A) sensitivity to children's readiness to learn.
B) acceptance of individual differences.
C) discovery learning.
D) scaffolding.

sensitivity to children's readiness to learn.

Empathy
A) always yields acts of kindness and helpfulness.
B) always leads to sympathy.
C) can escalate self-focused personal distress in some children.
D) is especially well-developed in shy, inhibited children.

can escalate self-focused personal distress in some children.

Research on friendships shows that
A) preschoolers interact in essentially the same ways with both friends and nonfriends.
B) preschoolers give more reinforcement to nonfriends than to friends.
C) most friendships during the preschool years are based on mutual trust.
D) the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.

the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.

Current research indicates that Freud was correct that
A) children adopt the moral standards of their same-sex parent.
B) guilt is an important motivator of moral action.
C) children's fear of punishment leads to the development of moral behavior.
D) fear of the loss of parental love motivates conscience formation.

guilt is an important motivator of moral action

According to cognitive-developmental theorists, preschoolers
A) cannot distinguish a moral imperative from a social convention.
B) actively make sense of their experiences.
C) acquire ready-made standards of good conduct from adults.
D) view not sharing as a more serious transgression than breaking a peer's toy.

actively make sense of their experinces

The case of David Reimer, the boy who was raised as a girl after a circumcision accident, demonstrates
A) the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a person's sense of self as male or female.
B) that gender stereotyping can have devastating effects on self-esteem.
C) that environment is more important than biology in determining one's gender identity.
D) that boys have more difficulty adjusting to gender reassignment surgery than girls.

the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a person's sense of self as male or female.

Research on gender constancy demonstrates that
A) providing preschoolers with information about genital differences promotes gender constancy.
B) genetic factors have a greater impact on gender constancy than environmental factors.
C) attainment of gender constancy is strongly related to false-belief understanding and emotional self-regulation.
D) attainment of gender constancy is strongly related to the ability to pass Piagetian conservation and verbal
appearance-reality tasks.

attainment of gender constancy is strongly related to the ability to pass Piagetian conservation and verbal
appearance-reality tasks.

Gender schema theory
A) explains how environmental factors contribute to sex differences in behavior and personality traits.
B) explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development.
C) maintains that children acquire gender-typed responses through modeling and reinforcement.
D) maintains that biological factors have a greater impact on gender typing than environmental factors.

explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development.

Research on child maltreatment shows that
A) strangers commit more than 60 percent of abusive incidents.
B) abuse depends more strongly on child factors than on parents' characteristics.
C) maltreating parents lack "lifelines" to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times.
D) contrary to popular belief, low income, low education, and marital conflict do not increase the chances of abuse.

maltreating parents lack "lifelines" to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times.

Piaget regarded __________ as an important achievement of the concrete operational stage because it provides clear
evidence of __________.
A) seriation; reversibility
B) classification; hypothetico-deductive reasoning
C) conservation; operations
D) transitive inference; class inclusion

conservation; operations

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