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The Calvin cycle must turn 6 times in order for what to happen?

it to produce one molecule of glucose

The shorter the wavelength of visible light

the greater the energy

The first cells to release oxygen into the atmosphere were what?

Cyanobacteria

Photosynthesis take place where?

In the cholorplast

Green contributes the least energy to

photosynthesis

The light reactions of photosynthesis convert solar energy into

Chemical energy

The last stage of one complete turn of the Calvin cycle involves

regeneration of RuBP

The products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are

ATP and NADPH

Cutting down trees does what to the atmosphere?

increases the amount of CO2 released into the air

Grana are stacks of what?

membranous sacs

Photosystems are located where?

In the thylakoid membrane

What are responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of leaves in the fall?

Caratenoids

What is a stomatas function?

Gas exchange

What is this reaction? 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6H2O

Photosynthesis

In photosynthesis...

An H+ ion gradient forms across the thyroid membrane

What is the source of the oxygen gas released by a photosystem?

Water

What is the source of electrons for the light reactions?

water

How do plants obtain most of their water?

through their roots

What happens when a molecule absorbs a proton?

one of its electrons is raised to the excited state

The electron transport chain of cellular respiration ....

is analogous tot he light reactions of photosynthesis

The primary mechanism by which CO2 contributes to global warming is ?

by preventing the radiation of heat from earth to space.

Molecules release energy gained by absorption of a photon by:

Flourenscence
loss of an electron
light
heat

The Calvin Cycle makes direct us eof CO2 to make

ATP
NADPH
sugar

NADP+ is to photosynthesis as NAD+ is to

cellular respiration

The first step of the calvin cycle is

incorporation of CO2 into RuBP

The energy of wavelengths that appear green are least useful to

photosynthesis

Plant cells that contain the organelle responsible for photosynthesis are concentrated in the cells of

Mesophyll

The ultimate source of nearly all energy in the food produced on earth is

Sunlight

A concentration gradient is

a form of potential energy

The light reaction of photosynthesis take place in

the thylakoid membrane

How many molecules of glucose are produced by each cycle of the light reaction?

...

C4 plants conserve water by doing what?

Keeping their stomata closed most of the time

Mushrooms are what?

heterotrophs

CAM plants conserve water by doing what?

Keeping their stomata closed at night

An oxidation reduction reaction involves

the transfer of an electron

Under arid conditions C4 plants fix carbon dioxide more efficiently than C3 plants because why?

C4 plants use ATP to fix carbon dioxide

One of the compounds that is the direct output of the Calvin Cycle is what?

G3P

The first cells to split water were what?

Prokaryotes

A discrete packet of light is a what?

Photon

Oxygen is highly corrosive therefore,

Rust provides definitive evidence of large amounts of O2 int eh atmosphere.

Mesophyll cells in leaves are specialized for

photosynthesis

Thylakoids

are the membranous sacs found within a chloroplast

In photosynthesis -

redox reactions ultimately transfer electrons from H2O to CO2

Chlorophyll A is found at the reaction center of a

photosystem

In photosynthesis the immediate source of energy used to produce a proton gradient is

energy released as electrons are transferred from one carrier to another.

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