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Select All socrates considered philosophical issues plato believed knowledge is innate aristotle emphasized truth from the physical world rené descartes physical world has observable laws. mind is not subject to natural laws. locke empiricism - mind controlled by natural laws. tabula rasa blank slate. locke's idea that no knowledge is innate. hobbes materialism - only matter and energy exist. behaviorism psychological approach that materialism influenced. wilhelm wundt founder of science of psychology. wanted to apply methods of physiology to study mind. edward titchener brought science of psychology to the US. structuralism. structuralism identify the smallest parts to explain whole. introspection is important. william james opposed structuralism. developed functionalism. functionalism cares about how the mind fulfills its purpose dualism the division of the world and all things into body and spirit. biological approach aims to understand interaction b/w anatomy, physiology and behavior. biological experimentation to psych problems. CAT scans, MRIs, EEGs, PET scans. behavioral genetics approach emphasizes that behavior is attributed to genetic psychological characteristics. biological predispositions and environment on trait's manifestation. behavioral approach study of observable behavior. classical conditioning, wastson, skinner, behavior modification. cognitive approach to understand people, we must learn how they perceive their environment. structuralism and functionalism. most widely used today. humanistic approach studies roles of consciousness, free will, awareness of human condition. holistic study of personality. maslow, rogers. psychoanalitic/psychodynamic freud. conscious mind and subconscious mind interact. uncovering repressed information. importance of childhood relationships. sociocultural environment shapes behavior. culture must be considered. evolutionary behavior is best explained in how adaptive that behavior is for our survival. experiment seeks to understand cause and effect relationships. change in variable affects other variable. independent variable manipulated dependent variable see effect experimental group gets treatment control group doesn't get treatment population everyone that you want to understand representative sample use small group to conclude about population random sampling every person has equal chance of being chosen single blind researcher knows treatment double blind neither researcher nor subject knows treatment placebo seemingly therapeutic object that convinces patient he/she feels better correlational research assesses degree of association. just observational, doesn't prove causation. confounding variable another hidden factor plays a role in results. clinical resarch often uses case studies. cannot lead to causation. case studies intensive psychological studies of a single individual. reasearchers want generalizable studies. conceptual definition theory or issue being studied operational definition how issue will be observed internal validity certainty with which the results of an experiment can be attributed to independent variable. external validity extent to which findings have application to real world descriptive statistics summarize data measures of central tendency characterize the typical value in a set of data mean arithmetic average of a set of numbers mode most frequently occuring value of data set median number that falls in middle of distribution normal curve if perfect, all 3 measures of central tendency will be the same number variability how much the numbers differ from one another percentile expresses standing of one relative to others correlation coefficient indicates degree, direction of relationship. from +1 to -1. inferential statistics determines the level of confidence in claiming that a set of results would be unlikely to occur by chance. null hypothesis treatment had no effect alternate hypothesis treatment had an effect alpha accepted probability that the result can be attributed to chance type 1 error null is right, but we reject it. type 2 error null is wrong, but we don't reject it. informed consent subjects agree to participate after being told of what will occur in the experiment. they can leave at any point. debriefing meeting after experiment to explain purpose, reveal any deception. confidentiality right to anonymity applied subfield psychology in practice. therapy. basic subfield grounded in research. labs. psychiatry study of mental disorders. doctors prescribe medication. EEG measures brain electrical activity through electrodes. allows localized functions in brain. CAT scan cross sectional images of brain. similar to x-ray. MRI like a CAT scan but more detail. fMRI rapid sequencing of MRI. PET diffuse radioactive glucose to see active brain areas. CNS brain and spinal cord. have cerebrospinal fluid. PNS all other nerves neurons nerve cells afferent neurons send info to brain efferent neurons send info to nerves reflexes quick involuntary response. afferent straight to efferent. somatic nerve system voluntary movement of large skeletal muscles automatic nervous system controls smooth muscles sympathetic nervous system (sub-section of automatic) associated with processes that burn energy. responsible for fight or flight. parasympathetic nervous system (sub-section of automatic) associated with processes that conserve energy. return body to homeostasis. hindbrain the evolutionarily oldest part of brain cerebellum (h) controls muscle tone, balance medulla oblongata (h) involuntary actions (basic life functions) reticular activating system (RAS) (h) controls awakeness pons (h) passes neural info between regions thalamus (h) relays sensory information. (visual and auditory) midbrain has tectum and tegmentum tectum (m) brain's "roof" tegmentum (m) brain's "floor" tectum and tegmentum govern visual and auditory reflexes forebrain contains limbic system limbic system the emotional center of the brain hippocampus (f) processes and integrates memories. anterograde amnesia memories are not formed. due to damage to hippocamus. amygdala (f) helps express anger and frustration hypothalamus (f) controls balance. temperature, water, hunger and sex drives. lateral hypothalamus (f) "on" switch for eating ventromedial (f) "off" switch for eating cerebral cortex (f) wrinkled outer layer of the brain. functions of cerebral cortex higher cognitive funcions: thinking, planning, language use, fine motor control. sensory cortex in cerebral cortex. receives sensory input. motor cortex in cerebral cortex. send out motor information. left and right cerebral hemispheres symmetrical-looking sides of brain corpus callosum band of connective nerve fibers that joins the left and right hemispheres. broca's area left hemisphere specialized for language. expressive aphasia inability to speak. resulted from damage to broca's area. led broca to his conclusions about language. wernicke's area area in the left temporal lobe that allows speech comprehension. receptive aphasia inability to comprehend speech. resulted from damage to wernicke's area. led wernicke to his conclusions about language. roger sperry discovered that the two hemispheres of the brain can operate independently of each other. split-brain patients patients with cut corpus callosums. contralateral processing split-brain patients can describe objects if presented on right visual field. they can draw or choose objects if presented on left visual field. frontal lobe higher level thought, planning, reasoning, working memory, attention. parietal lobe somatosensory cortex. receives sensory information about temperature, pressure, pain, and texture. temporal lobe handles auditory input occipital lobe processes visual input association areas areas responsible for associating information in the sensory and motor cortices. apraxia inability to organize movement, caused by association area damage agnosia difficulty processing sensory input, caused by association area damage alexia inability to read, caused by association area damage nerves bundles of neurons soma nucleated cell body of neurons dendrites receive information from other neurons axon long structure that transmits chemical messages myelin sheath insulates the axon to speed the message nodes of ranvier gaps between myelin, helping to speed up neural transmission terminal buttons knobs on branched end of axon. don't touch other neurons. synapse the gap between neurons neurotransmitters chemicals the neuron sends the membrane changes what happens when the cell reaches the threshold of excitation in action potential? potassium and sodium what chemicals enter the cell in action potential? absolute refractory phase a period during which the cell cannot fire relative refractory phase a time when the cell can fire, but it has a higher threshold excitatory neurotransmitters cause neurons to fire inhibatory neurotransmitters stop cell firing enzymes break down neurotransmitters after the message is sent reuptake process by which neurotransmitters are absorbed back into cell acetylcholine neurotransmitter in charge of memory function, muscle contraction serotonin neurotransmitter in charge of arousal, sleep, pain sensitivity, mood and hunger regulation dopamine neurotransmitter in charge of movement, attention, reward GABA an inhibitory neurotransmitter endorphins the body's natural painkillers endocrine system another communication system in the body, controlled by the actions of hormones. pituitary gland the master gland. it releases hormones. under the hypothalamus where is the pituitary gland? adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) what does the pituitary gland release in stressful situations? adrenal glands stimulated by ACTH. cause fight - or - flight reactions. epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) what adrenal glands secrete thyroid gland produces thyroxine. is at the front of the neck. thyroxine regulates the cellular metabolism. hormones coordinate a wide range of responses. they're present in the blood stream. they affect the body for long periods of time. trait a distinctive characteristic or behavior pattern determined by genetics. dominant trait likely to be expressed recessive trait unlikely to be expressed genotype all possible combinations of genes phenotype observable result of combination of genes 2 recessive genes show recessive trait 1 dominant gene, 1 recessive gene show dominant trait chromosomes where are genes located? 23 how many chromosomes come from each partner? 46 what's the total number of chromosomes? heritability the degree of variance among individuals that can be attributed to genetic variations. down's syndrome a disorder caused by a break in the 21st chromosomal pair. huntington's chorea a late onset genetic disorder. basal gangial degeneration a fatal genetic disorder. often patients have died before the symptoms are shown. sensation the relationship between physical stimulation and its psychological effects. perception how sensations are recognized, interpreted, and organized. detection the act of sensing a stimulus. absolute thresholds the minimal amount of stimulation required to detect stimulus. it causes the neuron to fire 50% of the time. signal detection theory states that there are 4 possible outcomes of stimulus perception. hit the signal was present and the participatant reported sensing it. miss the signal was present but the participant didn't report sensing it. false alarm the signal was absent but the participant reported sensing it. correct rejection the signal was absent and the participant didn't report sensing it. discrimination the ability to distinguish the difference between different stimuli. just noticeable difference (jnd) or difference threshold the smallest detectable difference between 2 levels of stimulus. Weber's law the greater the magnitude of the stimulus, the larger the differences must be to be noticed. Ernst Weber who came up with Weber's law? examples of preconscious information processing subliminal perception, the tip-of-the-tongue phenonomenon. subliminal perception when there's a rapid stimulus, it cannot be perceived. but later, we recognize the stimulus because we have already experienced it. receptor cells detect certain kinds of energy receptive field the area from which receptor cells receive input transduction receptors convert the stimulus into neural impulses and sends them to the brain. contralateral shift sensory input goes from one side of the body to the opposite side of the brain. thalamus where does the contralateral shift occur? sensory coding the process by which receptors convey a range of information to the brain. qualitative coding the code is coded and expressed based on which neurons are firing. quantitative coding the code is coded and expressed based on the number of cells firing. amplitude brightness or loudness complexity saturation or timbre distal stimulus the real object that is perceived proximal stimulus the inverted image of the object on the retina on the fovea (center of retina) where are cones located? cones they are sensitive to bright light and color rods sensitive in low light. on the periphery of the retina. light, cornea, lens, retina visual pathway: the physical part (the eye) bipolar and amacrine cells, optic nerves, optic chiasma visual pathway: sending image to brain serial processing when the brain computes information in a methodical, linear manner. parallel processing when there are multiple computions occurring simultaneously. feature detector neurons they see parts of the pattern, which starts at the back of the occipital lobe and moves forward. convergence visual pathway: as the pattern moves forward, it becomes more complex and integrated. ventral stream the "what" pathway that connects to the prefrontal cortex. allows for recognition. dorsal stream the "where" pathway that connnects with the somatosensory cortex. it integrates information with other senses. young - helmholtz or trichromatic theory cones are activated by light waves of red, blue, and green. opponent process theory cells within the thalamus respond to opponent pairs of receptor sets (black/white etc). if one color is sensed, the other is turned off. afterimage the opposite color of what you saw because the receptors are fatigued. colorblindness a sex-liked genetic condition (usually in males). it's related to the opposite process theory. monochromats only see in shades of black and white. dichromats can't distinguish along the red/green or blue/yellow continuums. auditory input, outer ear steps of auditory pathway: outer ear tympanic membrane, ossicles, steps of auditory pathway: middle ear the stapes which is the last ossicle? oval window, cochlea, auditory nerve, temporal lobe steps of auditory pathway: inner ear cilia what is in the cochlea? vestibular sacs receptors in the inner ear that sense tilting and help balance place theory sound waves generate activity in different places along the basilar membrane. frequency theory the rate of neural impulses (the frequency of sound) allows us to sense pitch conductive deafness caused by damage to ear structures sensorineural deafness caused by damage to neural pathway scent molecules, olfactory epithelium, receptor cells, olfactory bulbs, olfactory cortex, limbic system olfactory pathway taste buds, medulla oblangata, pons, thalamus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, limbic system gustatory pathway papillae where are taste buds located? sweet, salty, bitter, sour the four basic tastes cutaneous and tactile receptors transmit information about pressure, pain, and temperature pain-gating brain sends signals to opiate receptors in spine, reducing the pain sensation cutaneous and tactile receptors, spinal cord, medulla oblongata, thalamus, limbic system, somatosensory cortex. tactile pathway c fibers unmyelinated neurons related to chronic pain. a-delta fibers send information about acute pain. substance p the neuropeptide that alerts the spinal cord to a painful stimulus. thalamus, cingulated cortex where substance p goes to get attention for pain cold fibers respond to cold warm fibers respond to warmth vestibular sense the sensation of balance kinesthesis transmits information about location and position of the limbs and body parts. sensory adaptation unconscious, temporary change in the way we respond to environmental stimuli habitation the process by which we adjust to a change, noticing it less over time dishabitation a change in stimulus causes us to notice it again attention the processing of stimuli and stored information selective attention attention to one thing while ignoring others cocktail party phenomenon ability to carry on one conversation in a room full of them. when others say our name, and we notice, it shows that we are unconsciouly attending to all conversations. shadowing when two different conversations enter ears and subject must repeat one, the subject ignores the one they don't have to repeat. filter theories propose that stimuli must pass through a screen or a filter before processing. attentional resource theories we have a fixed amount of attention and the resource can be divided up. divided attention trying to focus on more than one task at a time. perceptual processes how the mind interprets stimuli. bottom-up processing brain recognizes object by breaking to down into its component parts, relying on sensory receptors. top-down processing the brain labels a stimulus or experience. e.g. salivation when it sees food. visual perception recognizes depth, size, motion. monocular depth cues require only one eye to see. what are the monocular depth cues? interposition/occlusion, linear perspective, relative size, texture gradient, aerial perspective, relative clarity, motion parallax. interposition/occlusion a near object blocks a far object. linear perspective parallel lines seem to get closer as lines recede into distance. relative size a father image projects a smaller image on the retina. texture gradient textures become more dense as distance increases. aerial perspective atmosphere obscures distant objects relative clarity the farther away the object is, the less distinct it is. motion parallax objects appear to move differently when the observer is in motion. binocular depth cues rely on both eyes the binocular depth cues steropsis, retinal convergence, binocular disparity steropsis the image is in 3-D retinal convergence the closer the object is, the more the eyes must turn inward binocular disparity the closer the object is, the more similar the information arriving at each eye will be Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk used a visual cliff to see if depth perception was innate or learned. most babies wouldn't cross the "cliff," implying that perception is at least partly innate. Gestalt approach based on top-down theory. most perceptual stimuli can be broken down into figure-ground relationships. Gestalt principle: proximity the tendency to see objects near to each other as forming groups. Gestalt principle: similarity the tendency to prefer to group like objects together. Gestalt principle: symmetry the tendency to prefer forms that make up mirror images. Gestalt principle: continuity the tendency to prefer fluid forms. Gestalt principle: closure the tendency to "close up" objects that are incomplete in our perception. Law of Pragnanz we tend to see objects in their simplest forms. feature detector approach it posits that organisms respond to specific aspects of a particular stimulus. constancy we know a stimulus remains physically the same even if it doesn't seem like it. motion detection records the changing position of an object as it moves across the retina. it tracks how we move our head to follow stimuli. apparent motion things that appear to move, but really don't. phi phenomenon blinking lights create appearance of movement. stroboscopic effect pictures move quickly to imply movement. autokinetic effect still light that appears to twinkle in darkness.