Biology Final!

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The functions of the cytoskeleton do not include...

membrane synthesis

Microfilaments such as actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments form the cell supporting structure called...

cytoskeleton

Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of the plasms membrane to produce a _____ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton.

cell wall

What cytoskeleton filament has a tough, rope-like structure, and is not able to rapidly polarize or depolarize?

Intermediate filaments

In cells, vesicles travel by moving along ____

microtubules

The part of the membrane that extends through the phospholipid bilayer is primarily composed of amino acids that are _____

non-polar

A phospholipid has a polar end and a nonpolar end. Because of this, water molecules form...

hydrogen bonds with the polar end of the phospholipid molecule

Which of the following is NOT part of the cell membrane?

Phospholipids.

What is not a typical function of the plasma membrane?

Permanence in composition

While water continually orients phospholipids into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus the bilayer is considered to be _____ in nature.

Fluid

The movement of substance from regions of lower concentration is called...

Diffusion

A type of transport of a solute across a membrane, up its concentration gradient, using protein carriers driven by the expenditure of chemical energy, is known as...

Active Transport

If you were a macrophage, which process would you use to engulf and destroy foreign particles?

Phagocytosis

Energy is defined as...

The capacity to do work

Enzymes are very specific in their choices of substrates because each different enzyme has an active site that...

Is shaped to fit a certain substrate molecule

ATP gives up energy when it is converted to...

ADP and phosphate

In an experiment described in a chemistry lab book, the directions state that after mixing chemicals A and B and waiting 5 minutes, that A will be oxidized. This means that...

Chemical A has lost electrons to chemical B

One type of biochemical pathway regulation is referred to as feedback inhibition. This means that as the...

Cell produces more quantity of product through a biochemical pathway, the build-up of that product will inhibit the activity of that product's production

The reaction C6H12O6 + 6CO2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O, when it occurs in living cells is known as...

Glycolysis

When oxygen is limiting, during heavy exercise, muscle cells revert to ______ fermentation for energy production.

Lactic Acid

All of the following are the end products of glycolysis except...

NAD+

The enzymes catalyzing the reactions of glycolysis are found in the...

Cytoplasm

Regardless of the electron or hydrogen acceptor used, one of the products of fermentation is always...

ATP

What is not true about glycolysis?

Oxygen is necessary for glycolysis to take place

What is the correct sequence concerning glucose catabolism?

Glycolysis -> Pyruvate -> Acetyl CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain

Pyruvate oxidation results in _______, which enters the Krebs cycle.

Acetyl CoA

In eukaryotic cells, after glycolysis, all of the remaining reactions of glucose oxidation take place in the....

Mitochondria

A molecule that stores energy by linking charged phosphate groups near each other is called...

ATP

What step of glycolysis are two ATP molecules required?

Glucose Priming

A single glucose molecule can drive the Krebs cycle...

2 turns

In the Krebs cycle, what does not take place?

Pyruvate molecules are restored to the beginning of the Krebs cycle

In aerobic respiration, one of the products of is CO2. Which of the following parts of aerobic respiration generates CO2?

Pyruvate oxidation and the Krebs cycle

In mitochondria, chemiosmotic generation of ATP is driven by...

a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane.

The oxygen utilized in cellular aerobic respiration finally ends up in...

H2O

The components of the electron transport chain are located in the...

Inner membrane of the mitochondria

The Calvin cycle is driven by ATP and _____ produced in the light reactions.

NADPH

Clusters of chlorophyll and accessory pigments are called _________.

Photosystems

The general process whereby protons accumulate on one side of a membrane and can flow back across the membrane through ATP synthase resulting in ATP production is called _________________.

Chemiosmosis

The energy released in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is used to...

Develop a H+ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane

In the dark reactions of photosynthesis, CO2 is added to a five-carbon sugar-phosphate known as...

RuBP

When ATP levels are high, oxidative pathways are inhibited, so acetyl-CoA is channeled into...

Fatty Acid Synthesis

Most plants incorporate carbon dioxide into sugars by means of a cycle of reactions called the...

Calvin cycle

Chlorophyll b absorbs in green wavelengths of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb. In this respect, chlorophyll b acts as...

Accessory pigments

The dark (light-independent) reactions of photosynthesis are those that...

Convert CO2 into reduced molecules (sugars)

In which part of the chloroplasts are the Calvin cycle enzymes located?

Stroma

In the Calvin cycle, when CO2 is released without producing ATP or NADPH, this process is called...

Photorespiration

Most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosynthesis. From what molecules is the oxygen derived?

Water

A method devised by succulent desert plants to reduce the problem of photorespiration is...

The CAM metabolism

Which of the following is not part of the light-dependent reactions?

Calvin cycle

Primary growth in plants originates in...

Apical meristems

Secondary growth of plants results from cell division in which type of meristem?

Lateral Meristem

The most distinctive characteristic of leaf mesophyll cells is that they are filled with...

Many chloroplasts

A birdhouse is nailed into a tree 6 feet up from the ground. If the tree grows about 2 feet taller each year, where will the birdhouse be 25 years later?

6 feet

How could you distinguish between a root hair versus a very small root?

Root hairs are parts of single cells, roots are multicellular

Mosses, like ferns and certain other tracheophyte plants, require...

Water to reproduce sexually

What plant cell is not designed for transport?

Sclerenchyma

In the plants that utilize the CAM pathway, what happens to the stomata?

The stomata open in the evening but close in the morning.

Which of the following tissues transport water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots?

Xylem

The waterproof cuticle covering the epidermis of land plants helps prevent dehydration, much like the skin of some land animals. As a consequence, what other evolutionary adaptation was important for most land plants?

Stomates in the leaves

Plants, and their predecessors, green algae, do not share the property of

Having a system of roots and stems

Survival on land for organisms is difficult because of the problem of

Desiccation

Plants show a basic life cycle which involves the alternation of generations between a(n)...

Sporophyte and Gametophyte

Which of the following features are common to both moss leaves and true leaves?

Cholorphyll A and B

All plants are thought to have arisen from what common ancestor?

Green algae

What method do plants NOT use to conduct water?

Through the Casparian strip

Which of the following was a key innovation specifically involved in the evolution of large plants?

Vascular tissues

Photosynthesis can occur only if the stomata are open to allow the entry of...

CO2

Which of the following statements about Angiosperms would be false?

Free water is required for pollination

The following vascular tissue transports sugars and amino acids from the leaves to other parts of the plant...

Phloem

On a short-term basis, water loss in plants may be controlled by the...

Closing of the stomates in the leaves to limit transpiration.

The process of moving water through a plant by transpiration works because water molecules stick to each other through...

Hydrogen bonds

Flowering plants use animals or wind to transfer ________ between flowers.

Pollen

Which of the following characteristics are NOT necessary to being "alive"?

Movement

What are the three domains of life?

Prokarya, Eukarya, and Archaea; animals, plants. and fungi are part of the domain Eukarya.

What is not true about a useful hypothesis?

It can be proven

The _____ of water molecules determines its chemistry and thus the chemistry of life.

Polarity

When atoms gain or lose electrons, they become negatively or postively charged and are known as...

Ions

The number of protons in a given atom is equal to its _____ number.

Atomic

Water molecules are polar with ends that exhibit partial positive and negative charges. Such opposite charges make water molecules attract each other through bonds called...

Hydrogen bonds

When two atoms share a pair of electrons, the bonding is referred to as...

Covalent bonds

What is not a reason that water is extremely important in living things?

It is an excellent buffer

All atoms tend to fill their outer energy levels with the maximum number of electrons, usually eight. Depending on whether the atoms satisfy this simple octet rule or not will allow the prediction of....

The Chemical behavior of the atoms

Nonpolar molecules tend to aggregate in water because they are forces to come into close proximity with each other due to...

Hydrophobic interactions

Non-polarity and insolubility characterize biological compounds known as...

Lipids

Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called..

Monosaccarhides

The simplest and the most common monosaccarhide is a six-carbon sugar called...

Glucose

This atom in its unbound state has four valence electrons. These electrons readily form single, double, and triple bonds among themselves to become stable. This atom is...

Carbon

Humans are unable to get metabolic energy from cellulose because

They do not have the enzyme necessary to seperate the glucose monomers from the cellulose.

What is not matched incorrectly?

Cellulose--Polymer of glucose

Proteins possess all of the following functions except...

Cell recognition

Which of the following is not a type of lipid?

Vitamin A

Imagine that you were able to see a nucleotide under a high-powered microscope. As you scan the nucleotide you see a U nitrogen base. Without seeing any other part of the nucleotide you know that...

It is either a DNA nucleotide or an RNA nucleotide.

All _____ contain a plasma membrane.

Cells

Functional groups found in amino acids include all of the following except...

-PO3

The delivery system of eukaryotic cells called the ______ can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules.

Golgi Apparatus

The Cell Theory states that the cell is the basic unit of life, all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and ....

All cells arise from division of previously existing cells.

The Cell Theory states that the cell is the basic unit of life, all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and...

All cells arise from division of previously existing cells

Cells tend to be very small because...

As they get bigger, their volume increases much faster than their surface area

Chaperonins have what function?

Help proteins fold correctly

Which of the following is not present in all eukaryotic cells?

Cell Wall

What is not considered to be a part of the endomembrane system?

Mitochondria

Compared with eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells...

Are relatively simple

Cell of your salivary glands, which secrete lots and lots of protein, would most likely contain a lot of...

Rough ER

The genetic material of which kind of cells is included in a single, circular molecule of DNA devoid of any histone proteins?

Bacteria

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