The activity of the Na-K pump falls by what percent when pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit?
What are some sources of pH-influencing elements?
-Acidic Ketone bodies
What are the different kinds of Acidic ketone bodies?
Acid forming elements include chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus and are abundant in what types of foods?
High-protein food such as meat, fish, poultry, and eggs
Mineral elements that are alkaline, or basic in solution include what?
Mineral elements that are alkaline, or basic in a solution include potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium all of which are found in what types of food?
Fruits and vegetables
What serve as a secondary defense against harmful shifts in pH of body fluids?
What immediately combine with any added acid or alkali that enters the body fluids and thus prevent drastic changes in hydrogen ion concentration and pH?
What are the different examples of Chemical rapid action buffers?
-Bicarbonate buffer system
-Phosphate buffer system
-Protein buffer system
What are the different examples of Physiological delayed action buffers?
-Respiratory response (minutes)
-Renal response (hours)
Collectively what mechanisms are said to constitute the pH homeostatic mechanism?
-Kidney excretion of acids and bases
What is a substances that prevent marked change in pH of solution when an acid or base is added to it?
The main buffer pairs in body fluids are what?
-Plasma Protein pair
-Phosphate buffer pairs
Buffers react with what? and replace it with what?
React with a relatively strong acid (or base)
Replace it with a relatively weak acid (or base)
Nonvolatile acids, such as hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, and ketone bodies, are buffered mainly by what?
Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
Volatile acids, chiefly carbonic acid, are buffered mainly by what?
Potassium salts of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin
What makes it possible for carbonic acid to be buffered in red blood cell and then carried as bicarbonate in plasma?
What is the process of exchanging a bicarbonate ion formed in the red blood cell with a chloride ion from the plasma?
Normal blood pH and acid-base balance depends on what?
Base bicarbonate-to-carbonic acid buffer pair ratio of 20:1
A decrease in blood pH below normal (acidosis) tends to stimulate what?
Increased respiration's (hyperventilation) (which tends to increase pH back toward normal)
Alkalosis causes hypoventilation which tends to correct alkalosis by increasing what?
Blood CO2 and therefore blood H2CO3 and H+
Prolonged hypoventilation, by eliminating too little CO2 causes an increase in what?
Blood H2CO3 and consequently in blood H+, which may produce acidosis
When blood CO2, H2CO3, and H+ increase above normal, distal tubules secrete more what?
H+ into urine
When blood hydrogen ion concentration increases, distal tubules secrete more what?
NH3 which combines with H+ of urine to form ammonium ion