What refers to regulation of hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids?
Slight changes in what have dramatic effects on cellular metabolism?
What is arguably the most important active transport mechanism in the cell membrane?
The activity of the Na-K pump falls by what percent when pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit?
What is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration of solution?
What are some sources of pH-influencing elements?
-Acidic Ketone bodies
What is formed by aerobic glucose metabolism?
What is formed by anaerobic glucose metabolism?
What is formed by oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids?
What is formed in breakdown of phosphoproteins and ribonucleotides?
What is formed in breakdown of fats?
Acidic ketone bodies
What are the different kinds of Acidic ketone bodies?
What is the normal blood pH range?
What is used to describe an arterial blood pH of less than 7.35?
What is used to describe an arterial blood pH greater than 7.45?
Acid forming elements include what?
Acid forming elements include chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus and are abundant in what types of foods?
High-protein food such as meat, fish, poultry, and eggs
Mineral elements that are alkaline, or basic in solution include what?
Mineral elements that are alkaline, or basic in a solution include potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium all of which are found in what types of food?
Fruits and vegetables
What are the two major types of pH control systems?
What are the rapid action buffers?
Chemical buffer system
What are the delayed action buffers?
Physiological buffer system
What serve as a secondary defense against harmful shifts in pH of body fluids?
What immediately combine with any added acid or alkali that enters the body fluids and thus prevent drastic changes in hydrogen ion concentration and pH?
What are the different examples of Chemical rapid action buffers?
-Bicarbonate buffer system
-Phosphate buffer system
-Protein buffer system
What are the different examples of Physiological delayed action buffers?
-Respiratory response (minutes)
-Renal response (hours)
Collectively what mechanisms are said to constitute the pH homeostatic mechanism?
-Kidney excretion of acids and bases
What is a substances that prevent marked change in pH of solution when an acid or base is added to it?
What is NaHCO3?
What is H2CO3?
What is HCL?
What is NaOH?
The main buffer pairs in body fluids are what?
-Plasma Protein pair
-Phosphate buffer pairs
Buffers react with what? and replace it with what?
React with a relatively strong acid (or base)
Replace it with a relatively weak acid (or base)
Nonvolatile acids, such as hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, and ketone bodies, are buffered mainly by what?
Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
Volatile acids, chiefly carbonic acid, are buffered mainly by what?
Potassium salts of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin
What makes it possible for carbonic acid to be buffered in red blood cell and then carried as bicarbonate in plasma?
What normally buffers HCl (hydrochloric acid)?
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
What normally buffers Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)?
Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
What is the process of exchanging a bicarbonate ion formed in the red blood cell with a chloride ion from the plasma?
Normal blood pH and acid-base balance depends on what?
Base bicarbonate-to-carbonic acid buffer pair ratio of 20:1
What plays a vital role in controlling pH?
A decrease in blood pH below normal (acidosis) tends to stimulate what?
Increased respiration's (hyperventilation) (which tends to increase pH back toward normal)
Prolonged hyperventilation may increase blood pH enough to cause what?
Alkalosis (decrease in H+)
An increase in blood pH above normal (or alkalosis) causes what?
Prolonged hypoventilation may decrease blood pH enough to produce what?
Acidosis (increase in H+)
Alkalosis causes hypoventilation which tends to correct alkalosis by increasing what?
Blood CO2 and therefore blood H2CO3 and H+
Prolonged hypoventilation, by eliminating too little CO2 causes an increase in what?
Blood H2CO3 and consequently in blood H+, which may produce acidosis
When blood CO2, H2CO3, and H+ increase above normal, distal tubules secrete more what?
H+ into urine
Sodium re-absorption from urine to the blood to control pH is in exchange for what?
When blood hydrogen ion concentration increases, distal tubules secrete more what?
NH3 which combines with H+ of urine to form ammonium ion
What is an excessive blood potassium?