Chap 30 Acid-Base Balance

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What refers to regulation of hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids?

Acid-base balance

Slight changes in what have dramatic effects on cellular metabolism?

pH

What is arguably the most important active transport mechanism in the cell membrane?

Na-K pump

The activity of the Na-K pump falls by what percent when pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit?

50%

What is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration of solution?

pH

What are some sources of pH-influencing elements?

-Carbonic acid
-Lactic acid
-Sulfuric acid
-Phosphoric acid
-Acidic Ketone bodies

What is formed by aerobic glucose metabolism?

Carbonic acid

What is formed by anaerobic glucose metabolism?

Lactic acid

What is formed by oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids?

Sulfuric acid

What is formed in breakdown of phosphoproteins and ribonucleotides?

Phosphoric acid

What is formed in breakdown of fats?

Acidic ketone bodies

What are the different kinds of Acidic ketone bodies?

-Acetone
-Acetoacetic acid
-Beta-hydroxybutyric acid

What is the normal blood pH range?

7.35-7.45

What is used to describe an arterial blood pH of less than 7.35?

Acidosis

What is used to describe an arterial blood pH greater than 7.45?

Alkalosis

Acid forming elements include what?

-Chlorine
-Sulfur
-Phosphorus

Acid forming elements include chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus and are abundant in what types of foods?

High-protein food such as meat, fish, poultry, and eggs

Mineral elements that are alkaline, or basic in solution include what?

-Potassium
-Calcium
-Sodium
-Magnesium

Mineral elements that are alkaline, or basic in a solution include potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium all of which are found in what types of food?

Fruits and vegetables

What are the two major types of pH control systems?

-Chemical
-Physiological

What are the rapid action buffers?

Chemical buffer system

What are the delayed action buffers?

Physiological buffer system

What serve as a secondary defense against harmful shifts in pH of body fluids?

Physiological buffers

What immediately combine with any added acid or alkali that enters the body fluids and thus prevent drastic changes in hydrogen ion concentration and pH?

Chemical buffers

What are the different examples of Chemical rapid action buffers?

-Bicarbonate buffer system
-Phosphate buffer system
-Protein buffer system

What are the different examples of Physiological delayed action buffers?

-Respiratory response (minutes)
-Renal response (hours)

Collectively what mechanisms are said to constitute the pH homeostatic mechanism?

-Buffers
-Respiration
-Kidney excretion of acids and bases

What is a substances that prevent marked change in pH of solution when an acid or base is added to it?

Buffer

What is NaHCO3?

Sodium bicarbonate

What is H2CO3?

Carbonic acid

What is HCL?

Hydrochloric acid

What is NaOH?

Sodium hydroxide

The main buffer pairs in body fluids are what?

-Bicarbonate pairs
-Plasma Protein pair
-Hemoglobin pairs
-Phosphate buffer pairs

Buffers react with what? and replace it with what?

React with a relatively strong acid (or base)
Replace it with a relatively weak acid (or base)

Nonvolatile acids, such as hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, and ketone bodies, are buffered mainly by what?

Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3

Volatile acids, chiefly carbonic acid, are buffered mainly by what?

Potassium salts of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin

What makes it possible for carbonic acid to be buffered in red blood cell and then carried as bicarbonate in plasma?

Chloride shift

What normally buffers HCl (hydrochloric acid)?

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

What normally buffers Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)?

Carbonic acid (H2CO3)

What is the process of exchanging a bicarbonate ion formed in the red blood cell with a chloride ion from the plasma?

Chloride shift

Normal blood pH and acid-base balance depends on what?

Base bicarbonate-to-carbonic acid buffer pair ratio of 20:1

What plays a vital role in controlling pH?

Respiration's

A decrease in blood pH below normal (acidosis) tends to stimulate what?

Increased respiration's (hyperventilation) (which tends to increase pH back toward normal)

Prolonged hyperventilation may increase blood pH enough to cause what?

Alkalosis (decrease in H+)

An increase in blood pH above normal (or alkalosis) causes what?

Hypoventilation

Prolonged hypoventilation may decrease blood pH enough to produce what?

Acidosis (increase in H+)

Alkalosis causes hypoventilation which tends to correct alkalosis by increasing what?

Blood CO2 and therefore blood H2CO3 and H+

Prolonged hypoventilation, by eliminating too little CO2 causes an increase in what?

Blood H2CO3 and consequently in blood H+, which may produce acidosis

When blood CO2, H2CO3, and H+ increase above normal, distal tubules secrete more what?

H+ into urine

Sodium re-absorption from urine to the blood to control pH is in exchange for what?

H+

When blood hydrogen ion concentration increases, distal tubules secrete more what?

NH3 which combines with H+ of urine to form ammonium ion

What is an excessive blood potassium?

Hyperkalemia

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