5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Exceptional case/over generalization
- Strengthen questions ask you to identify the answer choice that best supports the argument. 2 common features
- Central assumption of causal conclusions
- Survey errors
- Logical negation
- a The makers of the LSAT do not think that there are multiple causes for the same effect. When an LSAT speaker concludes that one occurance caused another, that speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect and that consequently the stated cause will ALWAYS produce the effect.
- b takes a small number of intstances and treats those instances as if they support a broad, sweeping conclusion. Often appears as an incorrect answer.\n
- c To logically negate a conditional statement, negate the necessary condition. Example: neither...nor becomes either...or.
- d 1. The stem uses the word strengthen or a synonym (support, helps, most justifies) 2. The stem indicates that you should accept the answer choices are true.
- e 1. The survey uses a biased sample 2. The survey questions are improperly constructed 3. Respondents to the survey give inaccurate responses. People do not always tell the truth when responding to surveys.\n
5 Multiple choice questions
- assumes that only 2 courses of action are available when there may be others. \n
- Switches the elements in the sufficient and necessary conditions, creating a statement that does not have to be true. Given: A+ --> Study Mistaken Reversal: Study --> A+.
- 1. The stem uses the word assumption, presupposition or some variation 2. The stem NEVER uses the word "if" or any other sufficient condition indicator. The stem will likely contain a necessary condition indicator such as required or unless. The correct answer is a statement the author must believe in order for the conclusion to make sense.
- the author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. exp: "this essay is the best because it is better than all the others"\n
- amount, quantity, sum, total, count, tally.\n
5 True/False questions
Words used to introduce a necessary condition → then, only, only if, must, required, unless, except, until, without.
Things to remember in regards to WEAKEN questions → 1. ethical versus factual situations - when the stimulus addresses something ethical, a factual answer would be incorrect and vice versa 2. dual agreement or dual disagreement - often incorrect answer choices will supply statements that both speakers will agree with or that both speakers disagree with 3. the view of one speaker is unknown - test makers create an answer where the view of only one of the speakers in known. Use the Agree/Disagree Test - the correct answer must produce responses where one speaker would say "I agree, the statement is correct" and the other would disagree. If the 2 responses are not produced the answer is incorrect.\n
Rules for Family #3 → If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak.
LSAT Definition of "either/or" → an event or circumstance whose occurrence indicates that a necessary condition must also occur.
Numbers and percentages Common misconceptions → 1. Increasing percentages automatically lead to increasing numbers. This is not necessarily true because the overall size of the group could get smaller. 2. Decreasing percentages automatically lead to decreasing numbers 3. Increasing numbers automatically lead to increasing percentages 4. Decreasing numbers automatically lead to decreasing percentages 5. Large numbers mean large percentages and small numbers mean small percentages 6. Large percentages mean large numbers and small percentages mean small numbers. \n