5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Justify the conclusion formula
- Assumptions and causality: typical correct answer categories
- 2 speaker questions
- Weaken question signal words
- Primary Objective #4
- a Read closely and know precisely what the author said. DO NOT GENERALIZE!.
- b Premises + answer choice = conclusion When approaching answers, separate them into winners and losers, then apply the justify formula.
- c Usually have one male and one female. The female uses sound reasoning and the male uses flawed reasoning or makes a mistake. This is not always true, but more often than not.\n
- d A. Eliminates an alternate cause for the stated effect B. Shows that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs, assumption answers affirm the cause/effect relationship C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect doe not occur D. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed E. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement is accurate or eliminates possible problems with the data.
- e Weaken, attack, undermine, refute, argue against, call into question, cast doubt, challenge, damage, counter, When evaluating answers ask yourself: "Would this answer choice make the author reconsider his position or force the author to respond?"
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- 1. The stem uses the word strengthen or a synonym (support, helps, most justifies) 2. The stem indicates that you should accept the answer choices are true.
- this type of flawed argument attacks the person (or source) instead of the argument they advance. because the LSAT is concerned solely with argument forms, a speaker can never validly attack the character or motives or a person; instead, a speaker must always attack the argument advanced by the person. 2 forms: 1. Focusing on the motives of the source 2. Focusing on the actions of the source. \n
- 1. Any "new" element in the conclusion will appear in the correct answer. 2. Elements that are common to the conclusion and at least one premise normally do not appear in the correct answer. 3. Elements that appear in the premises but not the conclusion usually appear in the correct answer.
- 1. Increasing percentages automatically lead to increasing numbers. This is not necessarily true because the overall size of the group could get smaller. 2. Decreasing percentages automatically lead to decreasing numbers 3. Increasing numbers automatically lead to increasing percentages 4. Decreasing numbers automatically lead to decreasing percentages 5. Large numbers mean large percentages and small numbers mean small percentages 6. Large percentages mean large numbers and small percentages mean small numbers. \n
- Think about the structure of the argument before examining the answer choices. Do not expect to see the exact prephrase, there are too many variations. Make an abstract prephrase then examine each answer to see if it paraphrases the prephrase.\n
5 True/False Questions
Errors in the use of evidence → Argument Part - If you do see the main conclusion at the end of a Method-AP problem, be prepared to answer a question about a part of the arguement other than the conclusion.\n
LSAT Definition of "either/or" → Allows you to decide between contenders or to confirm that the answer you have chosen is correct. 1. Logically negate the answer choices under consideration. Usually consists of taking a "not" out of a sentence or putting a "not" in a sentence. 2. The negated answer choice that attacks the argument will be the correct answer. When the correct answer is negated, the answer must weaken the argument.
Fact test for Method of Reasoning questions → If an answer choice describes an event that did not occur in the stimulus, then that answer is incorrect. Watch for answers that are partially true, that is answers that contain a description of something that happened in the argument but that also contain additional things that did not occur. Assess the argument as to it's validity. Be aware of premise and conclusion indicators. This helps better understand the structure of the argument and helps understand the answer choices.\n
Probability indicators → Refer to the amount or quantity in the relationship. Examples: (do not need to memorize) all, every, most, many, several, sole, only, not all, none, few.
How to identify Justify the Conclusion questions → Premises + answer choice = conclusion When approaching answers, separate them into winners and losers, then apply the justify formula.