5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Common features of Resolve the Paradox
- Premise Indicators
- Words used to introduce numerical ideas
- 3 quirks of assumption question answer choices
- Causal statements
- a amount, quantity, sum, total, count, tally.\n
- b 1. Watch for answers starting with the phrase "at least one" or "at least some". When an assumption answer choice starts with one of these phrases it is usually right. But ALWAYS verify with A.N.T. 2. Avoid answers that claim an idea was the most important consideration for the author. Typical structures: "The primary purpose", "the top priority", "the main factor". In every assumption question these answers have been wrong. 3. Watch for the use of "not" or negatives in assumption answer choices. Do not rule out a negative answer choice just because you are used to seeing assumptions as a positive part of the argument. "no" "not" "never"
- c They can be in the premises or conclusion. If they are in the conclusion the argument is flawed. Classic mistaken cause and effect reasoning refers to occurences when a causal assertion is made in the conclusion or the conclusion presumes a causal relationship.
- d 1. No conclusion. When a stimulus does not have a conclusion and contains a paradox, expect a Resolve question 2. Language of contradiction exp: but, however, yet, although, paradoxically, surprisingly.
- e because, since, for, for example, for the reason that, in that, given that, as indicated by, due to, owing to, this can be seen from, we know this by.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- thus, therefore, hence, consequently, as a result, so, accordingly, clearly, must be that, shows that, conclude that, follows that, for this reason.
- occurs when an author attempts to attack an opponent's position by ignoring the actual statements made by the opposing speaker and instead distorts and refashions the argument, making it weaker in the process. Often prephrased by "what you're saying is" or "if I understand you correctly".\n
- involves judgements made about groups and parts of a group. an error or composition occurs when the author attributes a characteristic of part of the group to the group as a whole or to each member of the group Error of division - author attributes characteristics of the whole to a part of the group. exp: U.S. wealthiest country. Every American is wealthy.\n
- 1. The stimulus will almost always contain an argument you must identify, isolate and assess the premises and the conclusion of the argument 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct answer choices impact the conclusion 3. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors. Read carefully to sure up the argument 4. These questions often yield strong prephrases 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new info. Just because a fact or idea is not mentioned in the stimulus is not grounds for dismissing an answer choice.
- A. Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect. B. Show that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs. C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur. D. Eliminate the possility that the stated relationship is reversed. E. Show that the data used to make the causal statements are accurate or eliminate possible problems with the data.
5 True/False Questions
Counter Premise Indicators → introduce something that actually contains an idea that is counter to the argument. By raising opposition, the author can minimize the damage that would be done by the objection if it were raised elsewhere. but yet, however, on the other hand, admittedly, in contrast, although, even though, still, whereas, in spite of, despite, after all.
Fact test for Method of Reasoning questions → Think about the structure of the argument before examining the answer choices. Do not expect to see the exact prephrase, there are too many variations. Make an abstract prephrase then examine each answer to see if it paraphrases the prephrase.\n
Method of Reasoning → 1. You can use only the info in the stimulus to prove the correct answer choice 2. Any answer choice that describes an element or a situation that does not occur in the stimulus is incorrect Method of Reasoning questions use a variety of formats, but they all are asking what method, technique, strategy, or process the author is using.
LSAT Conclusion trick for Method AP questions → Take the statements under consideration and place them in an arrangement that forces once to be the conclusion and the other(s) to be the premise (s). Use premise and conclusion indicators to achieve this end. Once the pieces are arranged, determine if the arrangement makes logical sense. If so, you have the conclusion. If not reverse the arrangement.
Conclusion definition → A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons. Ask: What is the author driving at? What does the author want me to believe? What point follows from the others?