5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- How to attack a causal conclusion
- Family #1: Prove
- 2 speaker questions
- Internal contradiction AKA self contradiction
- Time shift errors
- a Stimulus (accepted) ----> Answer Choices (affected or determined) AKA: must be or prove family must be true, main point, point at issue, method of reasoning, flaw in the reasoning, parallel reasoning.
- b Usually have one male and one female. The female uses sound reasoning and the male uses flawed reasoning or makes a mistake. This is not always true, but more often than not.\n
- c the mistake involves assuming that conditions will remain constant over time, and that what was the case in the past will be the case in the future or present. \n
- d Whenever you identify a causal relationship in the conclusion of an LSAT problem, immediately prepare to either weaken or strengthen the argument. Tasks for Weaken questions...must always identify a causal conclusion. Then ask if there relationship must be as stated by the author or if another explanation can be found? A. Find alternate cause for the stated effect B. Show that even the cause occurs, the effect does not occur C. Show that although the effect occurs, the cause did not occur D. Show that the stated relationship is reversed E. Show that a statistical problem exists with the data used to make the causal statement.
- e occurs when an author makes conflicting statements. \n
5 Multiple choice questions
- Think about the structure of the argument before examining the answer choices. Do not expect to see the exact prephrase, there are too many variations. Make an abstract prephrase then examine each answer to see if it paraphrases the prephrase.\n
- Always read each of the five answer choices. If an answer choice appears somewhat attractive, interesting or even confusing, keep it as a contender and move to the next answer.
- if, when, whenever, every, all, any, people who, in order to.
- 1. The survey uses a biased sample 2. The survey questions are improperly constructed 3. Respondents to the survey give inaccurate responses. People do not always tell the truth when responding to surveys.\n
- They can be in the premises or conclusion. If they are in the conclusion the argument is flawed. Classic mistaken cause and effect reasoning refers to occurences when a causal assertion is made in the conclusion or the conclusion presumes a causal relationship.
5 True/False questions
Source argument AKA ad hominen → an event or circumstance whose occurrence indicates that a necessary condition must also occur.
Conclusion Indicators → A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons. Ask: What is the author driving at? What does the author want me to believe? What point follows from the others?
Primary Objective #3 → If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak.
Family #2: Help → Stimulus (accepted) --/-> answer choices (affected or determined) cannot be true.
Weaken question signal words → Weaken, attack, undermine, refute, argue against, call into question, cast doubt, challenge, damage, counter, When evaluating answers ask yourself: "Would this answer choice make the author reconsider his position or force the author to respond?"