5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- LSAT Conclusion trick for Method AP questions
- Typical assumption question stems
- Fact test for Method of Reasoning questions
- Exceptional case/over generalization
- Primary Objective #1
- a If an answer choice describes an event that did not occur in the stimulus, then that answer is incorrect. Watch for answers that are partially true, that is answers that contain a description of something that happened in the argument but that also contain additional things that did not occur. Assess the argument as to it's validity. Be aware of premise and conclusion indicators. This helps better understand the structure of the argument and helps understand the answer choices.\n
- b 1. The stem uses the word assumption, presupposition or some variation 2. The stem NEVER uses the word "if" or any other sufficient condition indicator. The stem will likely contain a necessary condition indicator such as required or unless. The correct answer is a statement the author must believe in order for the conclusion to make sense.
- c They often feature 2 conclusions (main and sub.), when the main conclusion is typically place in the first or second sentence and the last sentence contains the sub. conclusion. The sub. conclusion is set off by conclusion indicators while the main conclusion is not. USE CONCLUSION ID METHOD.\n
- d takes a small number of intstances and treats those instances as if they support a broad, sweeping conclusion. Often appears as an incorrect answer.\n
- e Determine whether the stimulus contains an argument or if it is only a set of factual statements. MUST recognize whether a conclusion is present.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- 1. The stimulus will almost always contain an argument you must identify, isolate and assess the premises and the conclusion of the argument 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct answer choices impact the conclusion 3. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors. Read carefully to sure up the argument 4. These questions often yield strong prephrases 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new info. Just because a fact or idea is not mentioned in the stimulus is not grounds for dismissing an answer choice.
- 1. new element answers - an answer that describes something that did not occure or describes an element new to the argument cannot be correct 2. Half right, half wrong answers - LSAT makers like to start off with something that happened, then end with something that did not. Half wrong=ALL wrong 3. Exaggerated answers - take a situation from the stimulus and stretch that situation to make an extreme statement that is not supported by the stimulus. Just because an answer choice contains extreme language DOES NOT mean that the answer is incorrect! 4. The Opposite Answer 5. The Reverse Answer - these are attractive because they contain familiar elements from the stimulus, but reverses them in the answer.\n
- If the stimulus contains an argument, identify the conclusion. If the stimulus contains a fact set, examine each fact.
- Always read each of the five answer choices. If an answer choice appears somewhat attractive, interesting or even confusing, keep it as a contender and move to the next answer.
- If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak.
5 True/False Questions
Family #2: Help → Stimulus (affected or determined) ---> answer choices (accepted) AKA: Help Family assumption, justify the conclusion, strengthen/support, resolve the paradox.
3 logical features of conditional reasoning → 1. The sufficient condition does not make the necessary condition occur. That is, the sufficient condition does not actively cause the necessary condition to happen. 2. Temporally speaking, either condition can occur first, or the two conditions can occur at the same time. 3. The conditional statement reflected by the author does not have to reflect reality.
Assumptions and causality: typical correct answer categories → A. Eliminates an alternate cause for the stated effect B. Shows that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs, assumption answers affirm the cause/effect relationship C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect doe not occur D. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed E. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement is accurate or eliminates possible problems with the data.
Sufficient Condition → an event or circumstance whose occurrence indicates that a necessary condition must also occur.
One of the most commonly used stimulus structures is what? How are they recognized? → Always ask: Do the given facts support the conclusion? Do the premises strongly suggest that the conclusion would be true? Does the conclusion feel like an inevitable result of the premises? Or Does the conclusion go beyond the scope of the info in the premises? How persuasive is the argument?