5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- 3 quirks of assumption question answer choices
- Conclusion definition
- Numbers and percentages Common misconceptions
- Common weakening scenarios
- Method of Reasoning
- a 1. Incomplete info. The author fails to consider all of the possibilities or relies upon evidence that is incomplete. This flaw can be attacked by bringing up new possibilities or info. 2. Improper comparison. The author attempts to compare two or more items that are essentially different. 3. Qualified conclusion. The author qualifies or limits the conclusion in such a way as to leave the argument open to attack.
- b A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons. Ask: What is the author driving at? What does the author want me to believe? What point follows from the others?
- c 1. Increasing percentages automatically lead to increasing numbers. This is not necessarily true because the overall size of the group could get smaller. 2. Decreasing percentages automatically lead to decreasing numbers 3. Increasing numbers automatically lead to increasing percentages 4. Decreasing numbers automatically lead to decreasing percentages 5. Large numbers mean large percentages and small numbers mean small percentages 6. Large percentages mean large numbers and small percentages mean small numbers. \n
- d Argument Part - If you do see the main conclusion at the end of a Method-AP problem, be prepared to answer a question about a part of the arguement other than the conclusion.\n
- e 1. Watch for answers starting with the phrase "at least one" or "at least some". When an assumption answer choice starts with one of these phrases it is usually right. But ALWAYS verify with A.N.T. 2. Avoid answers that claim an idea was the most important consideration for the author. Typical structures: "The primary purpose", "the top priority", "the main factor". In every assumption question these answers have been wrong. 3. Watch for the use of "not" or negatives in assumption answer choices. Do not rule out a negative answer choice just because you are used to seeing assumptions as a positive part of the argument. "no" "not" "never"
5 Multiple choice questions
- caused by because of responsible for reason for leads to induced by promoted by determined by produced by product of played a role in was a factor in is an effect of.
- because, since, for, for example, for the reason that, in that, given that, as indicated by, due to, owing to, this can be seen from, we know this by.
- They h ave failed to fully and accurately identify the conclusion of the argument. If a conclusion is present, you MUST identify it prior to proceeding on to the question stem.
- 1. The stem uses the word assumption, presupposition or some variation 2. The stem NEVER uses the word "if" or any other sufficient condition indicator. The stem will likely contain a necessary condition indicator such as required or unless. The correct answer is a statement the author must believe in order for the conclusion to make sense.
- To raise a viewpoint at the beginning of the stimulus and then disagree with it immediately thereafter. The stimulus often begins with: Some people claim... Some people propose... Many people believe... Some argue that... Some critics claim... Some scientists believe...
5 True/False questions
Primary Objective #3 → If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak.
Straw Man → occurs when an author attempts to attack an opponent's position by ignoring the actual statements made by the opposing speaker and instead distorts and refashions the argument, making it weaker in the process. Often prephrased by "what you're saying is" or "if I understand you correctly".\n
Incorrect answers in Point at Issue questions → 1. ethical versus factual situations - when the stimulus addresses something ethical, a factual answer would be incorrect and vice versa 2. dual agreement or dual disagreement - often incorrect answer choices will supply statements that both speakers will agree with or that both speakers disagree with 3. the view of one speaker is unknown - test makers create an answer where the view of only one of the speakers in known. Use the Agree/Disagree Test - the correct answer must produce responses where one speaker would say "I agree, the statement is correct" and the other would disagree. If the 2 responses are not produced the answer is incorrect.\n
Words used to introduce numerical ideas → amount, quantity, sum, total, count, tally.\n
Premise definition → A fact, proposition or statement from which a conclusion is made. Ask: What reasons has the author used to persuade me? Why should I believe this argument? What evidence exists?