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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. How to identify Justify the Conclusion questions
  2. Central assumption of causal conclusions
  3. Uncertain use of a term or concept
  4. Mistaken cause and effect
  5. Appeal Fallacies
  1. a 1. Stem uses the word "if" or another sufficient indicator 2. Stem uses the phrase "allows the conclusion to be properly drawn" or "enables the conclusion to be properly drawn". 3. Stem does not lessen the degree of justification. Never uses "most justifies" or "does the most to justify" Most stimuli contain conditional reasoning or contain numbers and percentages.
  2. b The makers of the LSAT do not think that there are multiple causes for the same effect. When an LSAT speaker concludes that one occurance caused another, that speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect and that consequently the stated cause will ALWAYS produce the effect.
  3. c 1. Appeal to authority - uses the opinion of an authority in an attempt to persuade the reader. The flaw is that the authority may not have relevant knowledge or all of the info regarding the situation, to there may be a difference of opinion among experts as to what is true. 2. Appeal to popular opinion/appeal to numbers - a position is true because the majority believe it to be true. 3. Appeal to emotion - occurs when emotions or emotionally charged language is used in an attempt to persuade the reader.\n
  4. d 1. assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence of events 2. assuming a causal relationship when only a correlation exists 3. failure to consider an alternate cause for the effect or an alternate cause for both the cause and the effect 4. failure to consider that the events may be reversed. \n
  5. e as an argument progresses, the author must use each term in a constant, coherent fashion. using a term in different ways is inherently confusing and undermines the integrity of the argument. \n

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. authors misuses info to such a degree that they fail to provide any info to support their conclusion or they provide info that is irrelevant to their conclusion. \n
  2. Think about the structure of the argument before examining the answer choices. Do not expect to see the exact prephrase, there are too many variations. Make an abstract prephrase then examine each answer to see if it paraphrases the prephrase.\n
  3. 1. Watch for answers starting with the phrase "at least one" or "at least some". When an assumption answer choice starts with one of these phrases it is usually right. But ALWAYS verify with A.N.T. 2. Avoid answers that claim an idea was the most important consideration for the author. Typical structures: "The primary purpose", "the top priority", "the main factor". In every assumption question these answers have been wrong. 3. Watch for the use of "not" or negatives in assumption answer choices. Do not rule out a negative answer choice just because you are used to seeing assumptions as a positive part of the argument. "no" "not" "never"
  4. They h ave failed to fully and accurately identify the conclusion of the argument. If a conclusion is present, you MUST identify it prior to proceeding on to the question stem.
  5. 1. Identify the conclusion - this is what you are trying to strengthen 2. Personalize the argument 3. Look for weaknesses in the argument 4. Arguments that contain analogies or use surveys rely upon the validity of those analogies and surveys. Answer choices that strengthen the analogy or survey or establish their soundness are usually correct 5. Remember that the correct answer can strengthen the argument just a little or a lot.

5 True/False questions

  1. Family #1: ProveStimulus (accepted) ----> Answer Choices (affected or determined) AKA: must be or prove family must be true, main point, point at issue, method of reasoning, flaw in the reasoning, parallel reasoning.

          

  2. Strengthen questions ask you to identify the answer choice that best supports the argument. 2 common features1. Watch for answers starting with the phrase "at least one" or "at least some". When an assumption answer choice starts with one of these phrases it is usually right. But ALWAYS verify with A.N.T. 2. Avoid answers that claim an idea was the most important consideration for the author. Typical structures: "The primary purpose", "the top priority", "the main factor". In every assumption question these answers have been wrong. 3. Watch for the use of "not" or negatives in assumption answer choices. Do not rule out a negative answer choice just because you are used to seeing assumptions as a positive part of the argument. "no" "not" "never"

          

  3. Weakening conditional reasoningan event or circumstance whose occurrence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur.

          

  4. "Additional" Premise Indicatorsused to introduce other premises that support the conclusion but are sometimes non-essential to the conclusion furthermore, moreover, besides, in addition, whats more, after all.

          

  5. False dilemmaassumes that only 2 courses of action are available when there may be others. \n

          

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