5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Solving Parallel Reasoning questions in the order stated
- Survey errors
- 2 speaker questions
- Logical negation
- Fact test for Method of Reasoning questions
- a If an answer choice describes an event that did not occur in the stimulus, then that answer is incorrect. Watch for answers that are partially true, that is answers that contain a description of something that happened in the argument but that also contain additional things that did not occur. Assess the argument as to it's validity. Be aware of premise and conclusion indicators. This helps better understand the structure of the argument and helps understand the answer choices.\n
- b To logically negate a conditional statement, negate the necessary condition. Example: neither...nor becomes either...or.
- c 1. The survey uses a biased sample 2. The survey questions are improperly constructed 3. Respondents to the survey give inaccurate responses. People do not always tell the truth when responding to surveys.\n
- d 1. if you recognize the form of reasoning used in the stimulus (causal, conditional, etc.) immediately attack the answers and search for the answer with similar reasoning (analogy, circular reasoning) 2. The Conclusion - match the conclusions, to do so match the certainty level or intent of the conclusion in the stimulus, not necessarily the specific wording of the conclusion 3. The Premises - like the conclusion use the same wording rules. Unless you notice that the premise(s) has an unusual role in the argument 4. The Validity of the Argument - the correct answer choice must match the validity in the stimulus. \n
- e Usually have one male and one female. The female uses sound reasoning and the male uses flawed reasoning or makes a mistake. This is not always true, but more often than not.\n
5 Multiple choice questions
- Premises + answer choice = conclusion When approaching answers, separate them into winners and losers, then apply the justify formula.
- A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons. Ask: What is the author driving at? What does the author want me to believe? What point follows from the others?
- A. Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect. B. Show that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs. C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur. D. Eliminate the possility that the stated relationship is reversed. E. Show that the data used to make the causal statements are accurate or eliminate possible problems with the data.
- Determine whether the stimulus contains an argument or if it is only a set of factual statements. MUST recognize whether a conclusion is present.
- 1. Whatever term is modified by "unless", "except", "until" or "without" becomes the necessary condition 2. The remaining term is negated and becomes the sufficient condition.
5 True/False questions
Weakening conditional reasoning → Weaken, attack, undermine, refute, argue against, call into question, cast doubt, challenge, damage, counter, When evaluating answers ask yourself: "Would this answer choice make the author reconsider his position or force the author to respond?"
How to determine the strength of an argument → Always ask: Do the given facts support the conclusion? Do the premises strongly suggest that the conclusion would be true? Does the conclusion feel like an inevitable result of the premises? Or Does the conclusion go beyond the scope of the info in the premises? How persuasive is the argument?
Primary Objective #5 → Carefully read and identify the question stem. DO NOT assume that certain words are automatically associated with certain questions types.
False dilemma → assumes that only 2 courses of action are available when there may be others. \n
One of the most commonly used stimulus structures is what? How are they recognized? → To raise a viewpoint at the beginning of the stimulus and then disagree with it immediately thereafter. The stimulus often begins with: Some people claim... Some people propose... Many people believe... Some argue that... Some critics claim... Some scientists believe...