5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Necessary Condition
- General lack of relevant evidence for the conclusion
- Assumptions and causality: typical correct answer categories
- Primary Objective #7
- Words used to introduce a necessary condition
- a Always read each of the five answer choices. If an answer choice appears somewhat attractive, interesting or even confusing, keep it as a contender and move to the next answer.
- b then, only, only if, must, required, unless, except, until, without.
- c authors misuses info to such a degree that they fail to provide any info to support their conclusion or they provide info that is irrelevant to their conclusion. \n
- d an event or circumstance whose occurrence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur.
- e A. Eliminates an alternate cause for the stated effect B. Shows that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs, assumption answers affirm the cause/effect relationship C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect doe not occur D. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed E. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement is accurate or eliminates possible problems with the data.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- 1. The sufficient condition does not make the necessary condition occur. That is, the sufficient condition does not actively cause the necessary condition to happen. 2. Temporally speaking, either condition can occur first, or the two conditions can occur at the same time. 3. The conditional statement reflected by the author does not have to reflect reality.
- if, when, whenever, every, all, any, people who, in order to.
- 1. Increasing percentages automatically lead to increasing numbers. This is not necessarily true because the overall size of the group could get smaller. 2. Decreasing percentages automatically lead to decreasing numbers 3. Increasing numbers automatically lead to increasing percentages 4. Decreasing numbers automatically lead to decreasing percentages 5. Large numbers mean large percentages and small numbers mean small percentages 6. Large percentages mean large numbers and small percentages mean small numbers. \n
- mistaken negation and reversal exp: taking the non-existence of something as evidence that a necessary precondition for that thing also did not exist" (MN) "mistakes being sufficient to justify punishment for being required to justify it" (MR)\n
- 1. The info in the stimulus is supect. There are often reasoning errors present, and you will further weaken the argument in some way. 2. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. The task is to determine which answer choice best attacks the argument in the stimulus.
5 True/False Questions
Incorrect Method of Reasoning answers → Think about the structure of the argument before examining the answer choices. Do not expect to see the exact prephrase, there are too many variations. Make an abstract prephrase then examine each answer to see if it paraphrases the prephrase.\n
3 incorrect answer traps (weaken) → 1. assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence of events 2. assuming a causal relationship when only a correlation exists 3. failure to consider an alternate cause for the effect or an alternate cause for both the cause and the effect 4. failure to consider that the events may be reversed. \n
Mistaken Negation → Usually have one male and one female. The female uses sound reasoning and the male uses flawed reasoning or makes a mistake. This is not always true, but more often than not.\n
Counter Premise Indicators → introduce something that actually contains an idea that is counter to the argument. By raising opposition, the author can minimize the damage that would be done by the objection if it were raised elsewhere. but yet, however, on the other hand, admittedly, in contrast, although, even though, still, whereas, in spite of, despite, after all.
Rules for Family #2 → assumes that only 2 courses of action are available when there may be others. \n