5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Premise Indicators
- Probability indicators
- Family #4: Disprove
- Necessary Condition
- Fundamental rules for strengthen, justify the conclusion and assumption questions
- a an event or circumstance whose occurrence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur.
- b Refer to the likelihood of occurence or the obligation present, as in "The mayor should resign." "the law will never pass." Examples: (do not need to memorize) must, will, always, not always, probably, likely, would, never, rarely, could, not necessarily. \n
- c Stimulus (accepted) --/-> answer choices (affected or determined) cannot be true.
- d because, since, for, for example, for the reason that, in that, given that, as indicated by, due to, owing to, this can be seen from, we know this by.
- e 1. The stimulus will almost always contain an argument you must identify, isolate and assess the premises and the conclusion of the argument 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct answer choices impact the conclusion 3. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors. Read carefully to sure up the argument 4. These questions often yield strong prephrases 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new info. Just because a fact or idea is not mentioned in the stimulus is not grounds for dismissing an answer choice.
5 Multiple choice questions
- 1. Appeal to authority - uses the opinion of an authority in an attempt to persuade the reader. The flaw is that the authority may not have relevant knowledge or all of the info regarding the situation, to there may be a difference of opinion among experts as to what is true. 2. Appeal to popular opinion/appeal to numbers - a position is true because the majority believe it to be true. 3. Appeal to emotion - occurs when emotions or emotionally charged language is used in an attempt to persuade the reader.\n
- 1. No conclusion. When a stimulus does not have a conclusion and contains a paradox, expect a Resolve question 2. Language of contradiction exp: but, however, yet, although, paradoxically, surprisingly.
- Always read each of the five answer choices. If an answer choice appears somewhat attractive, interesting or even confusing, keep it as a contender and move to the next answer.
- Stimulus (affected or determined) ---> answer choices (accepted) AKA: Help Family assumption, justify the conclusion, strengthen/support, resolve the paradox.
- Argument Part - If you do see the main conclusion at the end of a Method-AP problem, be prepared to answer a question about a part of the arguement other than the conclusion.\n
5 True/False questions
Assumption Negation Technique → Negates both conditions, creating a statement that does not have to be true. Given: A+ --> Study Mistaken Negation: Not A+ --> Not Study
Words used to introduce numerical ideas → thus, therefore, hence, consequently, as a result, so, accordingly, clearly, must be that, shows that, conclude that, follows that, for this reason.
Resolve the Paradox question stem features → 1. An indication that the answer choices should be accepted as true 2. Keywords that indicate your task is to resolve the problem Action: Problem: Resolve Paradox Explain Contradiction Reconcile Discrepancy Conflict Puzzle *Attempt to prephrase Correct answer must show how both sides can coexist.
Rules for Family #3 → If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak.
Mistaken Negation → To logically negate a conditional statement, negate the necessary condition. Example: neither...nor becomes either...or.