5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- General lack of relevant evidence for the conclusion
- Circular reasoning
- Words used to introduce percentage ideas
- Method of Reasoning questions
- Errors of conditional reasoning
- a mistaken negation and reversal exp: taking the non-existence of something as evidence that a necessary precondition for that thing also did not exist" (MN) "mistakes being sufficient to justify punishment for being required to justify it" (MR)\n
- b percent, proportion, fraction, ratio, incidence, likelihood, probability, segment, share. \n
- c the author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. exp: "this essay is the best because it is better than all the others"\n
- d 1. You can use only the info in the stimulus to prove the correct answer choice 2. Any answer choice that describes an element or a situation that does not occur in the stimulus is incorrect Method of Reasoning questions use a variety of formats, but they all are asking what method, technique, strategy, or process the author is using.
- e authors misuses info to such a degree that they fail to provide any info to support their conclusion or they provide info that is irrelevant to their conclusion. \n
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Refer to the amount or quantity in the relationship. Examples: (do not need to memorize) all, every, most, many, several, sole, only, not all, none, few.
- 1. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present and depending on the question, you will help shore up the argument in some way. 2. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. Your task is to determine which answer choice best meets the question posed in the stem.
- amount, quantity, sum, total, count, tally.\n
- To raise a viewpoint at the beginning of the stimulus and then disagree with it immediately thereafter. The stimulus often begins with: Some people claim... Some people propose... Many people believe... Some argue that... Some critics claim... Some scientists believe...
- 1. ethical versus factual situations - when the stimulus addresses something ethical, a factual answer would be incorrect and vice versa 2. dual agreement or dual disagreement - often incorrect answer choices will supply statements that both speakers will agree with or that both speakers disagree with 3. the view of one speaker is unknown - test makers create an answer where the view of only one of the speakers in known. Use the Agree/Disagree Test - the correct answer must produce responses where one speaker would say "I agree, the statement is correct" and the other would disagree. If the 2 responses are not produced the answer is incorrect.\n
5 True/False Questions
Assumption Negation Technique → Allows you to decide between contenders or to confirm that the answer you have chosen is correct. 1. Logically negate the answer choices under consideration. Usually consists of taking a "not" out of a sentence or putting a "not" in a sentence. 2. The negated answer choice that attacks the argument will be the correct answer. When the correct answer is negated, the answer must weaken the argument.
False dilemma → occurs when the author uses an analogy that is two disimilar to the original situation to be applicable. \n
Appeal Fallacies → occurs when the author uses an analogy that is two disimilar to the original situation to be applicable. \n
How to solve Justify questions mechanistically → 1. Identify the conclusion - this is what you are trying to strengthen 2. Personalize the argument 3. Look for weaknesses in the argument 4. Arguments that contain analogies or use surveys rely upon the validity of those analogies and surveys. Answer choices that strengthen the analogy or survey or establish their soundness are usually correct 5. Remember that the correct answer can strengthen the argument just a little or a lot.
Family #1: Prove → Stimulus (accepted) ----> Answer Choices (affected or determined) AKA: must be or prove family must be true, main point, point at issue, method of reasoning, flaw in the reasoning, parallel reasoning.