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urology

medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat urinary diseases

urinary system

body system that includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. function= produce and excrete urine

calix

area at the tip of each renal pyramid. Minor calices take urine to the major calices

flank

area of the bacl (between the ribs and hip bone) that overlies the kidneys

kidney

organ of the urinary system that produces urine. it is in the retroperitoneal space, an area behind the peritoneum of the abdomen

renal pelvis

large, funnel-shaped cavity within each kidney that collects urine from the major calices and then narrows to become the ureter

renal pyramid

triangular-shaped areas of tissue in the medulla of the kidney

glomerulus

network of intertwining capillaries within the glomerular capsule in the nephron. Filtration takes place here.

nephron

microscopic functional unit of the kidney

nephron loop

tubule of the nephron that is u-shaped. Begins at the proximal convoluted tubule and ends at the distal convoluted tubule. Reabsorption takes place here.

proximal convoluted tubule

tubule of the nephron that begins at the glomerular capsule and ends at the nephron loop. Reabsorption takes place here.

ureter

tube that carries urine from the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder

bladder

expandable resevoir for storing urine

urethra

tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In women, it is a short tube but, in men, it goes through the prostate gland and down the length of the penis

creatine

waste product from muscle contractions. It is removed from the blood by the kidneys

filtration

process in which water, some nutritional substances, and wastes in the blood are all pushed through pores in the capillaries of the glomerulus. The resulting fluid is filtrate

reabsorption

process by which water and nutritional substances in the filtrate move out of the tubule and return to the blood in a nearby capillary

urea

waste product from protein metabolism. It is removed from the blood by the kidneys

urination

the process of expelling urine from the body. It is also known as voiding, mictuition, or passing water

glomerulonephritis

complication that develops following an acute infection with strptococcal bacteria or with viruses. The kidney becomes inflamed and urine production decreases

hydronephrosis

enlargement of the kidney due to the pressure from urine that is backed up in the ureter because of an obstructing stone or stricture

nephrolithiasis

kidney stone or calculus formation in the urinary system

lithogenisis

is the process of forming stones

nephropathy

general word for any disease of the kidney

nephroptosis

abnormally low position of a kidney

polycystic kidney disease

hereditary disease characterized by cysts in the kidney that eventually destroy the nephrons, causing kidney failure

pyelonephritis

inflammation and infection of the pelves of the kidneys

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

final, irreversible stage of chronic renal failure in which there is little or no remaining kidney function. Treat end-stage reanl failure with dialysis

cystitis

inflammation or infection of the bladder

vesicovaginal fistula

formation of an abnormal passageway connecting the bladder to the vagina

urethritis

inflammation or infection of the urethra

albuminuria

presence of albumin in the urine

anuria

absence of urine production by the kidneys because of acute or chronic renal failure.

bacteriuria

presence of bacteria in the urine

dysuria

difficult or painful urination

glycosuria

glucose in the urine

hematuria

blood in the urine

hypokalemia

a decreased amount of potassium in the blood

incontinence

inability to voluntarily keep urine in the bladder

oliguria

decreased production of urine due to kidney failure

polyuria

excessive production of urine due to diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus

pyuria

WBCs in the urine, indicating a UTI

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

general category of an infection anywhere in the urinary tract.

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

measures the amount of urea. Used to monitor kidney function

creatinine

measures the amount of creatine. Used to monitor kidney function

Culture & Sensitivity (C&S)

puts urine onto culture medium in a petri dish to identify the cause of a UTI

urinalysis (UA)

describes the characteistics of the urine and detects substances in it

glucose

not normally found in urine

ketones

not normally found in urine. produced when the body cannot use (or does not have enough) glucose and instead metabolizes fat

specific gravity (SG)

measurement of the concentration of the urine as compared to that of water

intravenous pyelography (IVP)

procedure that uses x-ray s and radiopaque contrast dye kidney, ureters, bladder (KUB) x-ray - procedure that uses an x-ray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder done without contrast dye

catheterization

procedure in which a catheter (flexible tube) is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder to drain the urine

foley catheter

indwelling tube that drains urine continuously

dialysis

procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient in renal failure

hemodialysis

uses a fistula or a shunt in the patient's arm

peritoneal dialysis

uses a permanent catheter inserted through the abdominal wall

intake & output

nursing procedure that documents the total amount of fluid intake and the total amount of fluid output

cystectomy

procedure to remove the bladder because of bladder cancer

cystoscopy

procedure that uses a rigid or flexible cytoscope inserted through the urethra in order to examine the bladder

lithotripsy

procedure that uses sound waves to break up a kindney stone

nephrectomy

surgical procedure to remove a diseased or cancerous kidney

nephrolithotomy

procedure in which a small incision is made in the skin and an endoscope is inserted in a percutaneous approach into the kidney to remove a kidney stone embedded in the renal pelvis or calices

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

C&S

culture and sensitivity

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

I&O

intake and output

IVP

intravenous pyelography

KUB

kidney, ureters, bladder

UA

urinalysis

UTI

urinary tract infection

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