Health Exam 2

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Aversive Conditioning

Client experiences unpleasant stimuli (shock, verbal insults) after behaving undesirably.

Behavior Therapy

Principles of social learning are used to assist people in forming accurate perceptions of their feelings and themselves.

Biofeedback

Monitoring of body functioning provides feedback to the client.

Cognitive Therapy

Client is taught to understand the irrationality of his or her thoughts or behaviors.

Encounter Groups

Confrontational strategies are used to allow members to express true feelings.

Existential Therapy

Emphasis is placed on free will and using the free will to develop insight and self-understanding.

Family Therapy

This form of group therapy is directed at families.

Feminist Therapy

Focuses on role of society and the role of discrimination in daily life.

Flooding Therapy

Client is placed in a real situation that he or she fears, normally accompanied by the therapist.

Gestalt Therapy

An approach that employs role-playing and confrontation.

Group Therapy

Psychotherapeutic principles are applied to group.

Humanistic Therapies

The focus is on conscious thoughts and present times as opposed to psychodynamic (unconscious thoughts and past experience)

Implosive Therapy

Clients imagine and deal with their worst fears in a safe environment with a therapist.

Marital Therapy

Husbands and wives receive therapy together to assist them in a more productive relationship

Modeling

Client watches another person perform the feared behavior and with the help of the therapist copies that behavior

Person-centered therapy

A warm, supportive environment is created where a person feels accepted and can reveal true feelings

Psychodrama

Role-playing strategies are used including role-reversal.

Psychodynamic Therapies

Freudian "insight" therapies are used and involve free association and dream analysis; can be found on the unconscious and past experiences.

Self-help groups

These support groups assist people in displaying behaviors to reduce risk of recitivism to a previous problem behavior (alcohol dependence)

Sensitivity Groups

Strategies are used to promote self-awareness and trust of others.

Systematic Desenitization

Principles of relaxation and visualization are used

Token Economy

Tokens are given as rewards for behavior in an effort to shape the behavior

Mental Health

The successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activities

Psychosomatic

Refers to the influence of the mind on the way the body functions

Chemical messengers (Hormones)

Influence neurotransmitters in the brain that relate to the mood

Depression

When our body produces too little of certain neurotransmitters

Culture and Health

Culture also influences mental health (for example: by emphasizing the importance of something an individual member of that culture can't attain, causing conflict and negative mind-body outcomes).

Behavior

how someone acts

Motivation

Something that leads to a behavior

Self-concept

A set of core beliefs and values that you feel describes yourself.

Self-Esteem

How you feel about your core qualities and attributes

Assertiveness

Being open and honest about declaring your rights

Aggressiveness

Forceful behavior with the intent to dominate

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Five levels of needs:
1. Physiological needs (hunger, thirst, shelter, etc)
2. Safety
3. Belonging and love
4. Self esteem
5. Self actualization

If first two levels are met, there is more motivation for the rest of the levels to be obtained

Characteristics of Goo Mental Health are similar to Maslow's Hierarchy and the Behavior Paradigm, as well as Defense Mechanisms

Simple Behavior Paradigm

Behavior is either need directed or goal directed.
Occurs in the following stages:
Goal or need -> Instrumental Behavior -> Goal reached -> Relief

Alternate Behavior Paradigm

Goal or Ned -> Instrumental Behavior -> Goal Not Reached -> Tension -> Frustration -> Response -> No relief/relief

Last stage can also be a result of "goal not reached" and "Tension"

Defense Mechanisms

When need is not met, simple responses are anger, or assertiveness and challenging something to try and get need meet.

Defense Mechanisms

Is anger and assertiveness do not work then become aggressive

Defense Mechanisms

Another way to respond is to protect or defend our ego (conscious state of how we perceive our self)

Rationalization

Making excuses for our need not being met

Defense Mechanisms

Denial (Simply not acknowledging that there is any frustration or conflict)

Defense Mechanisms

Displacement: Expression frustration by attacking another target

Defense Mechanisms

Repression: Selective forgetting; refusing to think about the event that led to the frustration

Defense Mechanisms

Reaction formation: displaying behaviors that are the opposite of the ones that we are actually feeling

Defense Mechanisms

Project formation: Accusing another person of the same unacceptable behaviors we have displayed

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They feel good about themselves

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They do not become overwhelmed by emotions such as fear, anger, love, jealously, guilty or, anxiety

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They have lasting and satisfying personal relationships

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They feel comfortable with other people

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They can laugh at themselves with others

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They have respect for themselves and others even if there are differences

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They are able to accept life's disappointments

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They can meet life's demands and handle problems when they arise

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They make their own decisions

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

They shape their environment whenever possible and adjust to it when necessary

Characteristic of Good Mental Health

Characteristics of Goo Mental Health are similar to Maslow's Hierarchy and the Behavior Paradigm, as well as Defense Mechanisms:

Positive self image
Good communication skills
A sense of humor
A healthy response to unmet needs
Good problem solving skills

Suicide

8th leading cause of death in the US

Suicide

3rd leading cause of death among 15-24 year olds

Suicide

Depression is usually a precursor

Suicide

Sociologist Emile Durkheim identified 3 types of suicide:

Egoistic suicide: ending one's life as a response to not being able to assimilate into a group or society

Altruistic suicide: Taking one's life to advance a cause of an ideal

Anomic suicide: When a person or group that provided a sense of security no longer exists

Warning Signs of Suicide

Feeling of hopelessness
Withdrawing from family and friends
Sleeping too much or too little
Feeling tired most of the time
Acting compulsively
Losing interest in most activities
Giving away prized possessions
Isolating oneself socially
Feeling depressed
Acting irrationally
Being preoccupied with death
Behaving recklessly
Abusing alcohol and drugs
Being unable to concentrate

(Many of these warning signs are also warning signs for depression as well as suicide)

Steps to Prevent Suicide

Always take suicidal comments seriously
Try not to act shocked by what a suicidal person might say
Do not handle the situation yourself- get assistance from a health professional
Listen attentively to everything the person has to say
Comfort the person with the words of encouragement
Let the person know that you are deeply concerned
Do not leave them alone
Talk openly about it
If a person talks about committing suicide with a firearm, contract the police for its removal
Don't be judgmental
Be careful about the statements you make
Listen!
Let the person express emotion in the way he or she wants

Stimulants, Depressants, and Hallucinogens

These can serve as chemical Band Aids that exert a psychoactive affect to lessen the intensity of the response to tension, frustration, and conflict. When the drug's effects wear off then the situation gets worse

Homicide

The 2nd leading cause of death for people between 15-34 and is the leading cause of deaths for African Americans in this age group.

Anorexia Nervosa

Can result in low BP, reduction of bone density, muscle loss and weakness, and kidney failure.
It is the fear of being fat when at or below normal weight.
Restricting eating so weight falls more than 15% than what is healthy

Bulimina Nervosa

Binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives and diuretics.

Results in: Gastric rupture, inflammation of esophagus, tooth decay, peptic ulcers, and pancreatitis

Binge Eating

Overeating as a response to frustration and conflict

Anxiety

Excessive worry and concern that is unpleasant and involves apprehension, fear, and panic

Symptoms: Trembling, jumpiness, inability to relax, racing heart, irritability, hyperactivity, insomnia, and apprehension

General Anxiety Disorder

Constant and uncontrollable worry and concern about everything

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

After a traumatic event, persistent frightening, thoughts, feelings, and memories interfere with one's life

Panic Disorders

Sudden overwhelming attacks of fear
Short but frequent attacks, uncontrolled thoughts of impending doom

Phobias

Fears of specific events, objects, or situations

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Characterized by the repetition of the same act over and over again (compulsion) as a response to persistent unwanted thought or images (obsession)

Depression

Feelings of worthlessness, indecisiveness, guilt, sadness, and apprehension

Dysthymia

Form of depression that is long term that is less severe than major depression, but still impairs functioning to some degree.

Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depressive Illness)

Extreme elation (mania) followed by the extreme low of depression

Seasonal Affective Disorder

When symptoms of depression are experienced during a specific season of the year

Personality Disorders

Groups of persistent behaviors that impair social, academic, or professional functioning or cause personal distress.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Excessive distrustfulness and suspicious of others
Expects to be abused by others
Doesn't confide in others
Extreme Jealousy

Schizoid personality disorder

extreme detachment from social situations and limited emotions in interpersonal relations
person is usually socially isolated, exhibits bizarre behaviors and beliefs about the world, and is suspicious of others

Schizophrenia

Involves distorted thoughts and perceptions, atypical communication, inappropriate emotions, abnormal motor behavior, and social withdrawal

Paranoid Schizophrenics

Experience delusions and auditory hallucinations
Trust no one and are constantly on guard that others are plotting against them

Catatonic Schizophrenics

Characterized by excessive inactivity
Can retain same posture for long periods of time
May alternate between violent behavior and being immobile and totally unresponsive to the outside world

Disorganized schizophrenics

Experience extreme delusions, hallucinations, and have inappropriate patterns of speech, mood, and movements
Extreme laughing and crying at unsuitable times

Undifferentiated schizophrenic

A schizophrenic who has delusions, hallucinations, and have inappropriate patterns of speech, mood, and movements

Residual schizophrenia

A condition in which one episode of schizophrenia has occurred but there are currently no prominent psychotic symptoms

Psychotherapy

Performed by a psychotherapist

Biomedical approach

involves the use of drug therapies to treat the disorder

Anti-anxiety drugs

Valium and Xanax

Anti-depressant drugs

Prozac, zoloft, and paxil

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Electrodes administer shocks to the patient,w ho experiences a seizure and then lapses into unconsciousness
ECT affects nerve cells and the root physiological causes of depression
Last resort

Stress

The collective psychobiological responses that occur when a person's natural balance is disrupted

Stressor

Any factor or force that disrupts homeostasis
Can be physical or psychological

Acute Stressor

Brief but intense factor that disrupts homeostasis

Episodic Stressor

Regular or predictable but intermittent stressor

Chronic Stressor

Prolonged and continuous stressor

Distress

A negative stress condition created by stressors that deplete energy and results in impaired performance

Eustress

Positive stress, create by stressors that motivate and result in improved performance

Flight or fight response

The urge to act when threatened by coordinating stress responses to provide extra strength and energy needed to cope. This includes an increase in heart rate and breathing, a tensing of muscles, and a focusing of attention.

General Adaptation Syndrome

A model that describes the body's physiological responses to stressors in three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

General Adaptation Syndrome

Response is achieved via the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, and the voluntary nervous system

Stress hormones

Chemical messengers (epinephrine and cortisol)

Alarm Stage of GAS

All physiological changes heighten awareness and ready the body for action

Resistance Stage of GAS

The body mobilize energy and biochemical resources as needed to withstand the threat. The body wants to adapt to the stressor and to regain homeostasis

Exhaustion stage of GAS

Body cannot handle overload of stressors, makes the body very vunerable

Transaction of mod of stress and coping

Stress is a particular relationship between th person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his/her resources and endangering his/her well being

Transactions

Stressful experiences are seen as person-environment interactions
Two fundamental ones: Person's judgement about the significance of the stressor, and the person's self-appraisal of his or her ability to cope

Social Readjustment Rating Scale

Uses a statistical analysis of responses from a diverse group of individuals, values were assigned to a variety of events based on their perceived stressfulness (values indicate the relative impact of stressful events on health and give a sense of the wide range of stressors in our lives)

Urban Press

Negative environmental stressors from the city that have been show to harm health

Sleep

1 in 5 Americans do not get enough of this

Sleep

This is both a cause of insomnia and is a stressor if lacking.

Persistent Stress

Damages the systems used to activate in the presence of stressors

Type A personality

Type of people who continually put themselves in stressful situations

Hostility

Primary trait that puts people at risk for the development of heart disease and other stress related medical conditions (signs of anger, aggression, and cynicism)

Type B Personality

Individuals are methodical, move at a slower place, generally easy going

Status syndrome

Refers to the effect of social position on a person's quality of life and longevity beyond that accounted for by education/income

View on Stress

Stress triggers specific physiological changes that make us more vulnerable to illness and disease via molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms

View on Stress (Mind and body view)

The excessive stress, poor health conditions is due to psychological factors such as stress perception, coping abilities, individual autonomy, social support, and modern day environmental stressors

Tend and befriend response

behavior pattern of protecting and caring for offspring and seeking social support exhibited by humans when under threat. (appears to have both biological and psychological sources)

Time management

The planned efficient use of one's time

Locus of Control

A psychological concept referring to a person's beliefs about the underlying causes of events in his or her life. The beliefs are described in one of two ways.

Internal Control orientation

Belief that outcomes of their actions depends on what they do
People who believe in this know how to act in order to achieve their desired outcome

External Control orientation

outcomes are based on events outside their personal control and that they have little influence
people who believe in this trend wait passively
for whatever comes their way

Deep Breathing

Breathing deeply, using the full capacity of your lungs

Progressive Muscle Relaxation

Systematiaclly contracts and relaxes different muscles in a sequential order coupled with deep breathing exercise

Visualization

Sit in a quiet, comfy place and visualize a peaceful scene in nature

Meditation

Adopting a passive attitude towards one's thoughts as they come and go

Physical Activity

Simulates the action of the classic fight or flight response

Cerebellum

A wrinkled ball of tissue on the upper spinal cord. Responsible for learned rote movements.

Cerebrum

Outermost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. Holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. Split into two halves. Words on the left half, artistic ability/abstract reasoning on the right.

Broca's Area

Controls speech

Frontal lobes

Allows for multitasking

Parietal Lobes

Sit behind the frontal lobes. These contain sensory areas.

Occipital Lobes

Process images from eyes and link that information with images.

Temporal Lobes

Lie in front of the occipital lobes, receive information from the ears, underside of the lobe helps retrieve memory. Other parts integrate multiple memories and sensations.

Cerebal Cortex

Processing area of the brain.

Acetylcholine

Exciter neurostransmitter, governs muscle contractions and cases glands to secrete hormones.

GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)

Inhibitory neurotransmitter tends to make cells less excitable. Helps visual system and control muscle activity

Serotonin

Constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. Involved in regulation of behavior, mood, pain, and temperature regulation

Dopamine

Inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements.

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