THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The nervous system maintains body homeostasis with electrical signals; provides for sensation, higher mental functioning, and emotional response; and activates muscles and glands
What is The nervous system?
This is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every though, action, and emotion reflects its activity
What are the nervous system's three overlapping functions?
1. Monitor changes
2. Processes and interprets
3. Effects, or causes, a response
What is motor output?
This is a response to integrated stimuli. The response activates muscles or glands
ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
List the general functions of the nervous system
Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system
Define central nervous system and peripheral nervous sytem, and list the major parts of each
What are the two structural subdivisions of the nervous system?
1. The central nervous system
2. The peripheral nervous system
What is the central nervous system (CNS)?
This consists of the brain and the spinal cord which occupy the dorsal body cavity and act as the integrating and command centers of the nervous system.
What is the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
This is the part of the nervous system outside the CNS. These are the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord
Ex: Spinal nerves - carry impulses to and from the spinal cord
Ex: Cranial nerves - carry impulses to and from the brain
What are the two functional subdivisions of the nervous system?
1. The sensory (afferent) division
2. The motor (efferent) division
What is the sensory, or afferent, division?
These are nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system
What is the motor, or efferent, division?
These are nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous systems.
What is the somatic nervous system?
This allows us to consciously, or voluntarily, control our skeletal muscles. This is often referred to as the voluntary nervous system.
What is the autonomic nervous system?
This regulates events that are automatic, or involuntary, such as the activity of the smooth and cardiac muscles and glands. This is often referred to as the involuntary nervous system.
What are supporting cells?
These cells in the CNS are "lumped together" as neuroglia, literally, nerve glue. These generally support, insulate, and protect delicate neurons.
What are astrocytes?
These are abundant, star-shaped cells that account for nearly half of the neural tissue. These brace neurons and form barrier between capillaries and neurons. These also help control the chemical environment of the brain.
What are microglia?
These are spiderlike phagocytes that monitor the health of nearby neurons, and dispose of debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria
What are ependymal cells?
These are glial cells that line the central cavities of the brain and the spinal cord. These have cilia that helps to circulate cerebrospinal fluid that fillds cavities and protects the CNS
What are oligodendrocytes?
These produce insulating coverings called myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system
What are myelin sheath?
These are fatty insulating coverings that is produced by oligodendrocytes wrapping its cilia around the nerve fibers
What are schwann cells?
These cells form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in the PNS
Describe the general structure of a neuron, and name its important anatomical regions
Describe the composition of gray matter and white matter
These are nerve cells that are specialized to transmit messages (nerve impulses) from one part of the body to another
What is the organelle that is lacking within the cytoplasm of the neuron's cell body?
This organelle is called centrioles
What are the neurofibrils?
These are intermediate filaments that are important in maintaining cell shape
What are the processes of neurons?
These are fibers that extend from the cell body. These vary in length from microscopic to 3 to 4 feet.
Ex: The longest ones in humans reach from the lumbar region of the spine to the great toe
What are dentdrites?
These are neuron processes that convey incoming messages (electrical signals) toward the cell body
What are axons?
These are neuron processes that generate nerve impulses and typically conduct them away from the cell body
What are axon terminals?
This is where axons end
These contain vesicles with neurotransmitters
They are also separated from the next neuron by a gap
What are neurotransmitters?
These are chemicals that is contained in the terminals' tiny vesicles
What is myelin?
This is the whitish, fatty material (which has a waxy appearance) covering most long nerve fibers. This protects and insulates the fibers and increases the transmission rate of nerve impulses.
What is a nuclei?
These are clusters of cell bodies within the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS)
What is the white matter?
This consists of dense collections of myelinated fiber tracts in of the CNS
Classify neurons according to structure and function
List the types of general sensory receptors and describe their functions
How are neurons classified?
These are classified either according to how they function or according to their structure
What is functional classification of neurons?
This groups neurons according to the direction the nerve impulse is traveling relative to the CNS
What are sensory, or afferent, neurons?
These are neurons carrying impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS
These keep us informed about what is happening to both inside and outside the body
What are motor, or efferent, neurons?
These are neurons carrying impulses from the CNS to the viscera and/or muscles and glands
These are always located in the CNS
What is the interneurons, or association neurons?
These are found in neural pathways in the central nervous system. These connect sensory and motor neurons
What is structural classification of neurons?
This is based on the number of processes extending from the cell body
What is called bipolar neurons?
These are neurons with two processes: an axon and a dendrite. These are rare in adults and are found only in some special sense organs (eye, nose) where they act in sensory processing as receptor cells
What is a unipolar neurons?
These are neurons that have a short single process leaving the cell body
PHYSIOLOGY: NERVE IMPULSES
Describe the events that lead to the generation of a nerve impulse and its conduction from one neuron to another
Define reflex arc, and list its elements
What is irritability function of neurons?
This is the ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulses
What is conductivity function of neurons?
This is the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Describe the events that lead to the generation of a nerve impulse
1. The resting membrane is polarized
2. Stimulus initiates local depolarization
3. Depolarization and generation of an action potential
4. Propagation of the action potential
6. Initial ionic conditions restored
What does it mean when a neuron is polarized or at rest (irritability aspect)?
This means that there are fewer positive ions sitting on the inner face of the neuron's plasma membrane than there are on its outer face
What does it mean when the stimulus initiates local depolarization (irritability aspect)?
A stimulus changes the permeability of a local "patch" of the membrane, and sodium ions diffuse rapidly into the cell. This changes the polarity of the membrane (the inside becomes more positive; the outside becomes more negative) at that site
This exchange of ions initiates an action potential in the neuron
What is depolarization?
This is the inward rush of sodium (NA+) ions that changes the polarity of the neuron's membrane at that site.
What does it mean when depolarization and generation of an action potential happens (irritability aspect)?
If the stimulus is strong enough, depolarization causes membrane polarity to be completely reversed and an action potential is initiated
What does it mean when propagation of the action potential or nerve impulse happens (irritability aspect)?
The depolarization of the first membrane path causes permeability changes in the adjacent membrane, and the cycle repeats
What does it mean when repolarization happens (irritability aspect)?
Potassium (K+) ions diffuse out of the cell as the membrane permeability changes again, restoring the negative charge on the inside of the membrane and the positive charge on the outside surface.
This action requires ATP
What does it mean when initial ionic conditions are restored (irritability aspect)?
The ionic conditions of the resting state are restored later by the activity of the sodium-potassium pump. Three sodium ions are ejected for every two potassium ions carried back into the cell
Describe the continuation of the nerve impulse between neurons
Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another nerve. Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve's axon terminal. The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter. An action potential is started in the dendrite
What is autonomic reflexes?
This regulate the activity of smooth muscles, the heart, and glands. This regulates digestion, elimination, blood pressure, and sweating.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
During the embryonic development, the CNS first appears as a simple tube, the neural tube, which extends down the dorsal median plane of the developing embryo's body. By the fourth week, the anterior end of the neural tube begins to expand, and brain formation begins. The rest of the neural tube posterior to the forming brain becomes the spinal cord. The central canal of the neural tube, which is continuous between the brain and spinal cord, becomes enlarged in four regions of the brain to form chambers called ventricles
Give an overview of how CNS develops
(same as previous slide but shorter)
CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube
The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord
The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles
There are Four chambers within the brain
These are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN
Identify and indicate the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum on a human brain model or diagram.
Name the four major regions of the brain?
1. Cerebral hemispheres
3. Brain stem
What are paired cerebral hemispheres?
Collectively these are called cerebrum, are the most superior part of the brain and together are a good deal larger than the other three brain regions combined
Name the surface lobes that is divided by the fissure
1. Frontal lobe
2. Parietal lobe
3. Occipital lobe
4. Temporal lobe
Name specialized areas of the cerebrum
1. Somatic sensory area
2. Primary motor area
3. Broca's area
4. Cerebral areas involved in special senses
5. Interpretation areas of the cerebrum
What is the somatic sensory area?
This is the area that receives impulses from the body's sensory receptors
Name cerebral areas involved in special senses
1. Gustatory area (taste)
2. Visual Area
3. Auditory area
4. Olfactory area
Name interpretation areas of the cerebrum
1. Speech/language region
2. Language comprehension region
3. General interpretation area
What is the gray matter of the cerebrum?
This is the outer layer. This is composed of mostly of neuron cell bodies
What is basal nuclei?
These are several internal islands of gray matter buried deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres
What is the white matter of the cerebrum?
These are fiber tracts inside the gray matter
Ex: corpus collosum connects hemispheres
What is diencephalon, or interbrain?
This sits atop the brain stem and is enclosed by the cereberal hemisphere
What is the thalamus?
This encloses the third ventricle. This is the relay station for sensory impulses for sensory impulses passing upward to the sensory cortex.
This also transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation.
What is the hypothalamus?
This is under the thalamus. It is an important autonomic nervous system center because it helps regulate body temperature, controls water balance, and regulates metabolism.
This is an important part of the limbic system. The pituitary gland is attached to this.
What is the epithalamus?
This forms the roof of the third ventricle. This houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland). This also includes the choroid plexus.
What is the pineal glands?
This is an endocrine gland that is also an important part of the epithalamus.
What is the choroid plexus?
This are the knots of capillaries within each ventricle that form the cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the midbrain?
This is mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers and has two bulging fiber tracts - cerebral peduncles. This also has four rounded protrusions - corpora quadrigemina - which are reflex centers for vision and hearing.
What is the cerebral peduncles?
These are the feet of the cerebrum which are two bulging fiber tracts.
What is the corpora quadrigemina?
These are four rounded protrusions are reflex centers involved with vision and hearing.
What are pons?
These are bulging center part of the brain stem. Mostly composed of fiber tracts. These includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing.
What is the medulla oblangata?
This the lowest part of the brain stem. Merges to the spinal cord. These important fiber tracts. It also contains important control centers.
Name examples of what control center control, or visceral activities.
Heart rate control, blood pressure regulation, breathing, swallowing, vomiting
What is the reticular formations?
These are two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces? They are involved in motor control of visceral organ.
What is the reticular activating systems?
These are a special group of reticular formation neurons, or reticular activating system, that play a role in awake/sleep cycles and consciousness.
What is the cerebellum?
This is the two hemisphere with convoluted surfaces. It provides involuntary coordination of body movements.
PROTECTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Name the three meningeal layers, and state their functions
Discuss the formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain barrier.
What is meninges?
These are three connective tissue membranes covering and protecting the CNS structures.
Name the three connective tissue membranes (or meninges)
1. Dura mater
2. Arachnoid mater
3. Pia mater
What is Dura mater?
This is the outermost leathery layer meaning "tough or hard mothe.". This is a double -layered external covering. This folds inward in several areas
What is periosteum?
One of the layers of the dura mater that is attached to the inner surface of the skull
What is the meningeal layer?
This is one of the layers of the dura mater that forms the outermost covering of the brain and continues as the dura mater of the spinal cord.
What are the arachnoid villi?
These are specialized projections that protrude through the dura mater. The cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed into the venous dural sinuses through this special projections
What is cerebrospinal fluid?
This is similar to blood plasma. It contains less protein and more vitamin C. This is formed by the choroid plexus. It forms a watery cushion to protect the brain. It is circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord.
What are the choroid plexuses?
These are clusters of capillaries hanging from the "roof" of each of the brain's ventricles
What is the blood brain barrier?
These are the least permeable capillaries of the body. These excludes many potential harmful substances. They are useless against some substances
Name some substances that the blood brain barrier is useless against
1. Fats and fat-soluble substances
2. Respiratory gases
Compare the signs of CVA with those of Alzheimer's disease; of a contusion with those of a concussion
Define EEG, and explain how it evaluates neural
Name some traumatic brain injuries and cerebrovascular accidents
1. Traumatic brain injuries
2. Cerebrovascular accident
3. Alzheimer's disease
Name the effect of the ricocheting brain hitting the opposite end of the skull
3. Cerebral edema
What is a concussion?
This is a slight brain injury where no permanent brain damage occurs. The victim may feel dizze or "see stars"
What is a contusion?
The nervous tissue destruction occurs. The nervous tissue does not regenerate.
May remain conscious but severe brain stem always result in a coma laying to an hour to a lifetime because of injury to the reticular activating system
What is cerebral edema or intracranial hemorrhage?
This is the swelling from inflammatory response. May compress and kill brain tissue
What is cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?
This is commonly called a stroke. This is the result of a ruptured blood vessel supplying a region of the brain. The brain tissue supplied with oxygen from that blood source dies. Loss of some functions or death may result
What is Alzheimer's disease?
This is a progressive degenerative brain disease.
Mostly seen in the elderly, but may begin in middle age.
Structural changes in the brain include abnormal protein deposits and twisted fibers within neurons.
Victims experience memory loss, irritability, confusion and ultimately, hallucinations and death
List two important functions of the spinal cord
Describe spinal cord structure
What is the spinal cord?
This extends from the medulla oblangata to the region of T12. Below the T12 is the cauda equine. Enlargement occurs in the cervical and lumbar regions
How long is the spinal cord?
This cylindrical continuation of the brain stem is about 17 inches long
What does the white matter of the spinal cord does?
This myelinated fiber tracts is the impulse conduction tracts
What is the internal gray matter of the spinal cord?
This is mostly cell bodies that looks like a butterfly or the letter H in the cross section. These are the dorsal and the anterior horns
What are the dorsal horns?
These are the two posterior projections of the gray matter in the cross section
What are the anterior horns?
These are the two anterior projections of the gray matter in the cross section
What is the dorsal root?
This is associated with the enlarged are (dorsal root ganglion). This is a collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system
What is the ventral root?
This is where the motor neurons of the somatic (voluntary) nervous system sends their axons out from
What is the Peripheral nervous system?
This consists of nerves and scattered groups of neuronal cell bodies (ganglia) found outside the CNS
What is perineurium?
Goups of fibers that are bound into fascicles by these coarse connective tissue wrappings
Identify the cranial nerves by number and by name, and list their major functions of each
How many pairs of cranial nerves mostly serve the neck and head?
There are 12 of these pairs and they are numbered in order from front to back? Most of these are mixed nerves, but three are sensory only
Identify in order the distribution of the cranial nerves
I. Olfactory nerve
II. Optic nerve
III. Oculomotor nerve
V. Trigeminal nerve
VI. Abducen nerves
VII. Facial nerves
VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerves
IX. Glossopharyngel nerves
X. Vagus nerves
XI. Accessory nerves
XII. Hypoglossal nerves
What is the main function of the trigeminal nerve?
Sensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles
What is the main function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Sensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharynx
What is the main function of the Vagus nerves?
Sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera
SPINAL NERVES AND NERVE PULSES
Describe the origin and fiber composition of (1) ventral and dorsal roots, (2) the spinal nerve proper, and (3) ventral and dorsal rami
Name four major nerve plexuses, give the major nerves of each, and describe theirmdistribution
How many pairs of human spinal nerves are formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord?
31 pairs are formed by the combination of these two roots
How are the spinal nerves formed?
These are formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Identify the site of origin, and explain the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system
What is autonomic nervous system and name the two motor nerves?
This is the motor subdivision of the PNS that controls the body activities automatically. Thus, the involuntary branch of the nervous systems. This consists of only two motor nerves: the preganglionic neuron (in the brain or spinal cord) and the postganglionic neuron (extends to the organ it serves)
What are the two subdivision of the autonomic nervous system?
These are the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division
What is the sympathetic division?
This mobilizes the body during extreme situations (such as fear, exercise, or rage)
What are the differences between somatic and autonomic nervous systems (in regards to the nerves)?
With somatic, there is one motor neuron
With autonomic, there are the preganglionic and postganglionic nerves
What are the differences between somatic and autonomic nervous systems (in terms of the effector organs)?
With somatic, its effector organ is the skeletal muscle
With autonomic, its effector organs are the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
What are the differences between somatic and autonomic nervous systems (in terms of neurotransmitters)?
With somatic, it always use acetylcholine
With autonomic, it use acetylcholine, epinephrine, or norepinephrine
Contrast the effect of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the following organs: heart, lungs, digestive system, blood vessels
What is the sympathetic division?
This is referred to as the "flight-or-flight" system. This respond to unusual stimulus and takes over to increase activities. Under these conditions, the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels; dilates the bronchioles of the lungs; and brings about many other effects that help the individual cope with the stressor
EX: "E" divisions = exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment
What is the parasympathetic division?
This refers to the housekeeping activities or "resting-and-digesting" system. This is concerned with conserving energy. It maintains daily necessary body functions such as the following below:
The "D" divisions = digestion, defecation, and diuresis