What are siderotic plaques?
tan/rust-colored plaques typically on the margin
primarily Fe+ & Ca+
normal aging finding
NOT a sx problem
What is splenosis?
multiple nodules of normal splenic tissue in the abd. cavity
T/F Splenosis can be either congenital or traumatic?
T/F Splenosis indicates non-functional tissue?
T/F Hyperplastic nodules (splenosis) are a more common finding upon necropsy than HSA?
Splenic torsion is most common wh/what other problem?
What breeds are most affected by splenic torsion?
T/F Splenic torsion may be an isolated event?
What are the c/s associated w/ACUTE splenic torsion?
acute abd. - smilar to GDV
Is acute splenic torsion a sx emergency?
What are the c/s of chronic splenic torsion?
intermittent signs for up to 2 weeks: V/D
What would you expect to see on rads of splenic torsion?
diminished visceral detail assoc. w/peritoneal effusion & displacement of the SI
What are the rad. signs of splenic dz?
gas bubbles in spleen
Gas bubbles in the spleen are indicative of _______.
What is the most diagnostic tool for a splenic torsion?
What would you expect to see upon U/S of a splenic torsion?
mottled or diffuse hypoechoic areas
intraluminal echogenic densities in veins
no flow in splenic vessels
diffusely hypoechoic areas w/linear echoes
vascular congestion/compression thrombosis of splenic v.
What is the protocol for pre-op stabilization for a pt. w/a splenic torsion?
abx for clostridium
What are the txt options for splenic torsion?
What are 6 other problems associated w/splenic infarction?
renal dz (PLN)
prior splenic torsion
What is nodular hyperplasia?
Sites of extramedullary hematopoiesis.
T/F Nodular hyperplasia of the spleen is a natural aging change
Why is nodular hyperplasia of the spleen a diagnostic dilemma?
It could be neoplasia or benign. An FNA is not diagnostic & you could cause bleeding if you poke it w/a needle or you could rupture it & cause a hemoabd.
What are your txt options regarding splenic trauma?
What is considered conservative mgmt. w/regard to splenic trauma?
watch serial PCV's & try to ctrl bleeding w/a belly wrap.
T/F Most splenic trauma cases are an emergency sx case?
F (most can be conservatively managed)
When would you perform autotransplantation of the spleen what is an important part of autotransplantation?
Perform when most of the spleen is normal.
Leave part of the spleen in the omentum & see if it resumes normal function.
T/F if an animal w/splenic trauma has normal coagulation parameters, most will stop bleeding on their own?
What is an important factor to remember regarding administration of colloids to a pt. w/splenic trauma?
Don't give fluids too rapidly b/c colloids can increase bleeding.
How do you manage a pt. w/a hemoabdomen?
correct dehydration, electrolyte & acid-base abn.
periop. abx may be necessary
Why would you need to monitor the PCV/hematocrit in a pt. w/splenic trauma?
B/c the fluids you are giving them can decrease their PCV.
What are the 5 types of Splenic Neoplasia?
Mast Cell Tumor (cats)
What are the possible sarcomas observed in dogs?
What is the prognosis for a mast cell tumor in the spleen of the cat vs. the instestine?
spleen - guarded
intestine - poor
What is the 2/3 law of splenomegaly in dogs?
2/3 w/splenomegaly have neoplasia
2/3 of those have HSA
What breeds are at increased risk of HSA?
GSD & Goldens
What are the chances of a splenic mass being either malignant or benign?
Of the 50% of splenic masses th/are malignan, what % of those are HSA's?
If an animal has a splenic mass & hemoabd., what are the chances that it is a HSA or a benign lesion?
75% chance of it being a HSA & 25% chance of it being a benign lesion.
What are the common primary sites for HSA?
Why have most HSA's already met. prior to dx?
b/c the tumor cells are constantly being filtered through the spleen.
In the case of HSA's, if mets haven't been detected, ______ decreases the risk of a major intra-abd. bleed.
What % of pts w/HSA have a concurrent rt. atrial mass that is observed via echo?
What is the prog. for a HSA w/sx alone?
What is the prog. for HSA w/ sx + chemo?
What is the primary blood supply to the spleen & what is it's parent a.?
splenic A &V
parent A. is the celiac A.
T/F Arrythmias associated w/splenectomy are typically atrial.
What type of arrythmia may be present pre-opreatively & is common PO removal of the spleen?
Pts th/undergo a splenectomy commonly have a ______ ______ postoperatively.
What are the indications for a partial splenectomy?
What is the primary goal of a partial splenectomy?
What are the indications for a total splenectomy?
What are 2 important procedures to perform when performing a total splenectomy?
double ligate vessels at the hilus
preserves branches to the pancreas & stomach
T/F A total splenectomy takes less time than partial splenectomy?
What is the txt of choice in dogs w/ acute splenic torsion?
What is the ONLY viable option for chronic splenic torsion?
What are 2 medical cond's th/will predispose the spleen to infarction?
What are the 3 sx stapling techniques?
ligate divide stapler (LDS)
What are the potential complications following splenectomy?
gastric wall compromise
subclinical hemoparasite infections
What is one possible justification for prophylactic abx w/future sx's w/regard to the spleen?
What are the primary branches of the celiac a?
short gastric a.a. & v.v.
lt. gastroepiploic a & v & splenic a & v
The lt. gastroepiploic a & v & splenic a & v. combine to form the _______ _______ a & v.
Transection of the _______ ligament & _______ _______ vessels will predispose the pt. to _______.
T/F Lt. gastroepiploic vessels can be transected w/o causing a problem when performing a total splenectomy.
If you ligate the ______ vessels too close to the stomach, you will get _______.