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Please review and let me know if you see anything that is wrong

1) Which of the following is a true statement
a) Blood flow through a capillary bed is regulated by precapillary sphincters.
b) Large veins, medium veins, and venules have valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
c) Blood flow is pulsatile in arteries and veins, but it is steady in capillaries.
d) Most tissue fluid is reabsorbed by the lymphatic system.
e) Decompensated shock is normally corrected by the body's homeostatic mechanisms.

a) Blood flow through a capillary bed is regulated by precapillary sphincters.

2) Which of the following is a false statement
a) Generalized vasomotion can raise or lower blood pressure throughout the body.
b) Increased capillary filtration, reduced reabsorption, or obstruction of lymphatic drainage can lead to edema.
c) The greatest outflow from the dural venous sinuses is via the internal jugular vein.
d) The pulmonary circuit is the only route in which arteries carry less oxygen than veins.
e) Lung tissue receives nourishment and waste removal from the pulmonary circuit.

e) Lung tissue receives nourishment and waste removal from the pulmonary circuit.

3) Which of the following is a False statement
a) Blood filtered through the hepatic sinusoids exits the liver via the hepatic veins.
b) Arterial flow to the lower limb comes from the external iliac artery.
c) The radial artery is lateral to the ulnar artery.
d) The three primary branches of the celiac trunk are the common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries.
e) The brachial vein is the most common site of blood pressure measurement with the sphygmomanometer.

d) The three primary branches of the celiac trunk are the common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries.

4) Which of the following is a false statement
a) The walls of veins are thicker than those of arteries.
b) The endothelial lining of an artery has a pleated appearance.
c) Most arterioles vasoconstrict under sympathetic stimulation.
d) Capillaries are the blood vessels whose walls generally permit exchange between the blood and interstitial fluids.
e) Blood pressure in veins is lower than that in arteries.

a) The walls of veins are thicker than those of arteries. .

5) Arteries are sometimes called the _______________ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have strong-resilient tissue strucure.
a) resistance
b) capacitance
c) hydrodynamic
d) compliance
e) fenestrated

a) resistance

6) _____________ have the thickest tunica media.
a) Small arteries
b) Small veins
c) Large arteries
d) Large veins
e) Capillaries

c) Large arteries

7) The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the ______ and in large arteries and veins contains the ________.
a) tunica media; smooth muscle
b) tunica externa; vasa vasorum
c) tunica externa; valves
d) tunica intima; endothelium
e) tunica intima; basement membrane

b) tunica externa; vasa vasorum

8) Most blood is in the
a) pulmonary circuit.
b) heart.
c) arteries.
d) veins.
e) capillaries.

d) veins.

9) Vasomotion is associated with the presence of
a) collagen and elastic tissue in the tunica media.
b) elastic tissue in the tunica externa.
c) endothelium in the tunica interna.
d) smooth muscle in the tunica media.
e) fenestrations in the tunica externa.

d) smooth muscle in the tunica media.

10) What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively?
a) 45 mm Hg
b) 80 mm Hg
c) 87.5 mm Hg
d) 90 mm Hg
e) 175 mm Hg

b) 80 mm Hg

11) The velocity of blood flow decreases when
a) viscosity increases.
b) blood pressure increases.
c) vessel radius increases.
d) afterload increases.
e) vasomotion decreases.

a) viscosity increases.

12) The medullary ischemic reflex results in
a) increased circulation to the brain.
b) reduced circulation to the brain.
c) ischemia of the medulla oblongata.
d) increased circulation to the adrenal medulla.
e) hormone secretion by the adrenal medulla when perfusion drops.

a) increased circulation to the brain.

13) ______________ has the most important effect on blood velocity.
a) Blood viscosity
b) Vessel radius
c) Blood osmolarity
d) Hematocrit
e) Vessel length

b) Vessel radius

14) Reactive hyperemia is a result of _________ to increase perfusion into a tissue.
a) urinary control
b) neural control
c) hormonal control
d) local control
e) respiratory control

d) local control

15) All of these increase blood pressure except
a) norepinephrine.
b) antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
c) angiotensin II.
d) aldosterone.
e) atrial natriuretic peptide.

e) atrial natriuretic peptide.

16) The vasomotor center of the _______ controls blood vessels throughout the body.
a) hypothalamus
b) medulla oblongata
c) spinal cord
d) cerebellum
e) cortex

b) medulla oblongata

17) ______ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and ___________ also increases heart rate.
a) Norepinephrine and antidiuretic hormone (ADH); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
b) Norepinephrine and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP); norepinephrine
c) Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
d) Epinephrine and aldosterone; epinephrine
e) Epinephrine and antidiuretic hormone (ADH); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

c) Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine

18) These are all mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall except
a) reabsorption.
b) filtration.
c) secretion.
d) transcytosis.
e) diffusion.

c) secretion.

19) The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is
a) oncotic pressure.
b) tissue fluid colloid osmotic pressure.
c) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
d) interstitial hydrostatic pressure.
e) blood hydrostatic pressure.

e) blood hydrostatic pressure.

20) ________________ by the capillaries at their venous end.
a) Waste products are taken up
b) Oxygen and glucose are taken up
c) Oxygen and glucose are given off
d) Wastes are given off
e) Organic nutrients are taken up

a) Waste products are taken up

21) The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is
a) oncotic pressure.
b) tissue fluid colloid osmotic pressure.
c) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
d) interstitial hydrostatic pressure.
e) blood hydrostatic pressure.

a) oncotic pressure

22) All these can lead to edema except
a) obstruction of lymphatic vessels.
b) liver disease.
c) famine.
d) hyperproteinemia.
e) hypertension.

d) hyperproteinemia.

23) ____________ would not increase capillary filtration.
a) Blockage of lymphatic capillaries
b) Dehydration
c) Increased capillary permeability
d) Dietary protein deficiency
e) Obstructed venous return

b) Dehydration

24) A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause _____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHg can cause _____________.
a) neurogenic shock; syncope
b) neurogenic shock; cardiogenic shock
c) compensated shock; decompensated shock
d) syncope; neurogenic shock
e) syncope; cerebral edema

e) syncope; cerebral edema

25) ______________ does not contribute to venous return.
a) The difference of pressure between venules and the venae cavae
b) The expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity during ventilation
c) The suction created by the atria slightly expanding during ventricular systole
d) Widespread vasodilation
e) Contraction of skeletal muscles of the limbs

d) Widespread vasodilation

26) __________ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns, or dehydration.
a) Anaphylactic
b) Cardiogenic
c) Hypovolemic
d) Venous pooling (vascular)
e) Neurogenic

c) Hypovolemic

27) ________ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeability.
a) Compensated
b) Anaphylactic
c) Neurogenic
d) Cardiogenic
e) Septic

e) Septic

28) A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which causes ___________ and a(n) _____________ in arterial blood pressure.
a) vasodilation; decrease
b) vasodilation; increase
c) vasoconstriction; decrease
d) D. vasoconstriction; increase
e) vasoconstriction; oscillation

a) vasodilation; decrease

29) Myocardial infarction can lead to _______________ shock.
a) neurogenic
b) cardiogenic
c) obstructed venous return
d) venous pooling (vascular)
e) hypovolemic

b) cardiogenic

30) The most important force in venous flow is
a) cardiac suction.
b) the pressure generated by the heart.
c) the skeletal muscle pump.
d) the thoracic (respiratory) pump.
e) one way flow due to valves.

b) the pressure generated by the heart.

31) Blood flow to the _______________ remains quite stable even when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm Hg.
a) hypothalamus
b) adrenal gland
c) stomach
d) skeletal muscles
e) kidneys

a) hypothalamus

32) Pulmonary arteries have ___________ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries.
a) similar
b) a little lower
c) considerably lower
d) considerably higher
e) a little higher

c) considerably lower

33) The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the
a) right pulmonary artery.
b) left pulmonary artery.
c) pulmonary veins.
d) bronchial arteries.
e) lobar arteries.

d) bronchial arteries.

34) There are no ________________ in humans.
a) right and left common carotid arteries
b) right and left brachiocephalic arteries
c) right and left brachiocephalic veins
d) right and left subclavian veins
e) right and left subclavian arteries

b) right and left brachiocephalic arteries

35) The _______________ supplies 80% of the cerebrum.
a) superficial temporal artery
b) occipital artery
c) internal carotid artery
d) anterior cerebral artery
e) middle cerebral artery

c) internal carotid artery

36) The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is
a) an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland.
b) a portal system connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary.
c) a short anastomosis found in the cerebellum.
d) formed by the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses.
e) an anastomosis circling the entire cortex.

a) an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland

37) From superior to inferior, the major branches of the abdominal aorta are
a) celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.
b) celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.
c) superior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.
d) superior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.
e) superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, and common iliac arteries.

a) celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.

38) The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by way of
a) the branches of the celiac trunk.
b) the azygos system.
c) mesenteric circulation.
d) the hepatic portal system.
e) the coronary and pulmonary veins.

b) the azygos system

39) These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except
a) the hepatic veins.
b) the internal and external iliac veins.
c) the inferior phrenic veins.
d) the vertebral veins.
e) the lumbar veins.

d) the vertebral veins.

40) These are all veins of the upper limb except
a) the cephalic vein.
b) the great saphenous vein.
c) the basilic vein.
d) the median antebrachial vein.
e) the ulnar vein.

b) the great saphenous vein.

41) These are all vessels of the lower limb except
a) the popliteal vein.
b) the posterior tibial artery.
c) the medial plantar artery.
d) the fibular vein.
e) the anterior interosseous artery.

e) the anterior interosseous artery.

42) This is the longest vein, and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery.
a) the inferior vena cava
b) the femoral vein
c) the deep femoral vein
d) the great saphenous vein
e) the common iliac vein

d) the great saphenous vein

43) The muscular layer of a blood vessel is the
a) tunica media.
b) tunica adventitia.
c) tunica interna.
d) tunica intima.
e) tunica externa.

a) tunica media.

44) Compared to arteries, veins
a) Are more elastic.
b) Hold their shape better when cut.
c) Have more smooth muscle in their tunica media.
d) Have a pleated endothelium.
e) Have thinner walls.

e) Have thinner walls.

45) The following is a list of the vessels that blood passes through from the heart and back to the heart.
1. venules
2. arterioles
3. capillaries
4. elastic arteries
5. medium veins
6. large veins
7. muscular arteries
The correct order in which blood passes through these structures from leaving the heart until its return is
b) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6.
c) 5, 6, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4.
d) 2, 7, 6, 3, 1, 5, 6.
e) 7, 4, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6.
f) 6, 5, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4.

b) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6.

46) Capillaries that have a complete lining are called
a) Sinusoidal capillaries.
b) Continuous capillaries.
c) Sinusoids.
d) Fenestrated capillaries.
e) Vasa vasorum.

b) Continuous capillaries.

47) Capillaries with an incomplete lining are called
a) Incomplete capillaries.
b) Fenestrated capillaries.
c) sinuses.
d) Continuous capillaries.
e) vasa vasorum.

b) Fenestrated capillaries

48) The only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids are the
a) venules.
b) Arterioles.
c) capillaries.
d) Veins.
e) Arteries.

c) capillaries.

49) Materials can move across capillary walls by
a) Diffusion and osmosis.
b) Active transport and bulk transport.
c) Secretion and adsorption.
d) all of the above
e) A and B only

e) A and B only

50) Blood flow through a capillary is regulated by the
a) Capillary plexus.
b) Precapillary sphincter.
c) Vasa vasorum.
d) Central channel.
e) Arterial anastomosis.

b) Precapillary sphincter.

51) Blood moves forward through veins by all of the following, except.....................
a) Because of contraction-relaxation pumping of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.
b) With the aid of the thoracoabdominal pump.
c) With the aid of contractions of skeletal muscles.
d) Because valves in the veins prevent the backflow of blood.
e) Because the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries.

a) Because of contraction-relaxation pumping of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.

52) Blood flow through the circulatory system is affected by all of the following, except
a) The presence or absence of collateral systems.
b) The amount of friction in the blood vessels.
c) Pressure differences.
d) The length and diameter of the blood vessels.
e) The viscosity of the blood.

a) The presence or absence of collateral systems.

53) Vascular resistance is related to all of the following, except the
a) Viscosity of the blood.
b) Osmolarity of interstitial fluids.
c) Length of a blood vessel.
d) Nature of the blood flow.
e) Diameter of a blood vessel.

b) Osmolarity of interstitial fluids.

54) As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries, the
a) Flow increases.
b) Resistance increases.
c) Pressure increases.
d) Viscosity increases.
e) Diameter of the blood vessels increases.

b) Resistance increases.

55) Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the
a) Level of carbon dioxide at the tissue increases.
b) PH rises.
c) Level of oxygen at the tissue increases.
d) Vessel constricts.
e) both A and C

a) Level of carbon dioxide at the tissues

56) Blood pressure is determined by measuring the
a) Degree of turbulence in a closed vessel.
b) Force of contraction of the right ventricle.
c) Pressure in the left ventricle.
d) Force exerted by blood in a vessel against air in a closed cuff.
e) Size of the pulse.

d) Force exerted by blood in a vessel against air in a closed cuff.

57) Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased
a) Blood volume.
b) Force of cardiac contraction.
c) Cardiac output.
d) Peripheral resistance.
e) Parasympathetic innervation.

e) Parasympathetic innervation.

58) The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ___ pressure.
a) circulatory
b) blood
c) pulse
d) mean arterial
e) critical closing

c) pulse

59) The blood osmotic pressure is most affected by changes in the.........................
a) Concentration of plasma waste products.
b) Number of white blood cells.
c) Concentration of plasma proteins.
d) Concentration of plasma sodium ions.
e) Concentration of plasma glucose.

c) Concentration of plasma proteins.

60) Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space?.....................................................
a) Blood hydrostatic pressure forces fluid from the capillary to the interstitial space.
b) The blood hydrostatic pressure and the blood osmotic pressure are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
c) The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is less than the blood osmotic pressure.
d) Blood osmotic pressure moves fluid from the interstitial space to the capillary.
e) The hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid does not oppose the movement of fluid from the capillary.

b) The blood hydrostatic pressure and the blood osmotic pressure are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

61) Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure except
a) Increased levels of ANF (atrial natriuretic factor).
b) Increased levels of aldosterone.
c) Decrease in blood volume.
d) Decreased peripheral resistance.
e) Activation of kinins.

b) Increased levels of aldosterone

62) Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except
a) Increased blood volume.
b) Increased levels of aldosterone.
c) Increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).
d) Increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone).
e) Increased levels of angiotensin II.

c) Increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).

63) Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the
a) Left atrium.
b) Systemic circuit.
c) Right atrium.
d) Lungs.
e) Aorta.

d) Lungs.

64) Pulmonary veins carry blood to the
a) Right atrium.
b) Lungs.
c) Systemic circuit.
d) Aorta.
e) Left atrium.

e) Left atrium.

65) Each of the following arteries carries blood to the heart, except the
a) Common carotid artery.
b) Left descending artery.
c) Right coronary artery.
d) Left circumflex artery.
e) Marginal artery.

a) Common carotid artery.

66) Each of the following arteries contributes to the circle of Willis, except the
a) Posterior cerebral artery.
b) Posterior communicating artery.
c) Basilar artery.
d) Anterior communicating artery.
e) Anterior cerebral artery.

c) Basilar artery.

67) An important artery that supplies blood to the brain is the ________ artery.
a) vertebral
b) external carotid
c) azygos
d) maxillary
e) subclavian

a) vertebral?

68) Blood from the brain returns to the heart by way of the ________ vein.
a) internal jugular
b) innominate
c) azygos
d) external jugular
e) vertebral

a) Internal jugular

69) The goal of cardiovascular regulation includes all of the following, except to ensure that
a) Changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure.
b) Blood flow changes occur in the appropriate area.
c) Sufficient concentrations of blood cells are present to meet emergency situations.
d) Changes occur without drastically altering blood flow to a vital organ.
e) Blood flow changes occur at the appropriate time.

c) Sufficient concentrations of blood cells are present to meet emergency situations.

70) Anxiety can result in
a) Decreased blood pressure.
b) Decreased heart rate.
c) Increased stimulation of the cardioinhibitory center by higher brain centers.
d) Increased stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers.
e) both C and D

d) Increased stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers.????

71) During increased exercise
a) Both cardiac output and stroke volume decrease.
b) Venous return increases.
c) Vasoconstriction occurs at the active skeletal muscles.
d) all of the above
e) A and C only

b) Venous return increases.

72) In response to hemorrhage, there is
a) Mobilization of the venous reserve.
b) Decreased vasomotor tone and peripheral vasodilation.
c) Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.
d) all of the above
e) both A and C

a) Mobilization of the venous reserve.

73) Symptoms of shock include all of the following, except
a) Acidosis.
b) Hypotension.
c) Decreased urine formation.
d) Profuse sweating.
e) Rapid, weak pulse

d) Profuse sweating

74) Homeostatic mechanisms can compensate for circulatory shock during the ___ stage.
a) reversible
b) progressive
c) irreversible
d) ischemic
e) compensated

e) compensated

75) Branches off the aortic arch include the
a) Left common carotid and right axillary arteries.
b) Brachio and right axillary arteries.
c) Right and left subclavian arteries.
d) Left subclavian artery.
e) both A and C

d) Left subclavian artery.

76) Major branches of the subclavian artery include the ________ artery (is).
a) internal thoracic
b) brachial
c) radial
d) digital
e) both B and C

Internal thoracic

77) After passing the first rib, the subclavian artery becomes the ________ artery.
a) axillary
b) radial
c) digital
d) ulnar
e) brachial

a) axillary

78) In the upper arm, the axillary artery becomes the ________ artery.
a) subclavian
b) brachial
c) ulnar
d) digital
e) radial

b) brachial

79) The brachial artery branches to form the radial and ________ arteries.
a) brachiocephalic
b) digital
c) axillary
d) subclavian
e) ulnar

e) ulnar

80) The two vertebral arteries fuse to form a large artery, the
a) Internal carotid artery.
b) External carotid artery.
c) Basilar artery.
d) Common carotid artery.
e) Circle of Willis.

c) Basilar artery.

81) At the carotid sinus,
a) Veins and arteries anastomose.
b) The external carotid forms the internal carotid.
c) The common carotid forms an internal and an external branch.
d) The internal carotids fuse with the vertebral arteries.
e) The aorta gives rise to the common carotids.

c) The common carotid forms an internal and an external branch

82) The ________ divides the aorta into a superior thoracic aorta and an inferior abdominal aorta.
a) pleura
b) mediastinum
c) diaphragm
d) pericardium
e) peritoneum

c) diaphragm

83) Branches of the thoracic aorta include all of the following, except the ______ arteries.
a) gastric
b) intercostal
c) bronchial
d) superior phrenic
e) esophageal

a) gastric

84) Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the ________ arteries.
a) common iliac
b) tibial
c) popliteal
d) common carotid
e) femoral

a) common iliac

85) The external iliac artery branches to form the ________ arteries.
a) femoral and tibial
b) radial and ulnar
c) femoral and deep femoral
d) femoral and popliteal
e) tibial and popliteal

c) femoral and deep femoral

86) In the lower leg, the femoral artery becomes the ________ artery.
a) peroneal
b) tibial
c) popliteal
d) deep femoral
e) iliac

c) popliteal

87) Branches of the popliteal artery include the
a) Plantar arch.
b) Iliac artery.
c) Posterior tibial artery.
d) Femoral artery.
e) Dorsalis pedis.

posterior tibial artery

88) The vessel that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms is the
a) Inferior vena cava.
b) Coronary sinus.
c) Superior vena cava.
d) internal jugular vein.
e) external jugular vein.

c) Superior vena cava.

89) Small veins of the brain empty into the
a) dural sinuses.
b) vertebral veins.
c) Coronary sinuses.
d) Circle of Willis.
e) External jugular vein.

a) dural sinuses.

90) The superior sagittal sinus collects blood from the
a) Brain.
b) Arms.
c) Legs.
d) Lungs.
e) Heart.

a) Brain.

91) The superficial veins of the forearm drain into the ________ vein(s).
a) radial and ulnar
b) innominate
c) axillary
d) cephalic and basilic
e) cephalic and brachial

d) cephalic and basilic

92) Which of the following is a deep vein of the forearm?
a) basilic
b) cephalic
c) hemiazygos
d) azygos
e) radial

e) radial

93) The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the ________ vein.
a) hemiazygos
b) brachial
c) basilic
d) azygos
e) axillary

b) brachial

94) At the level of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the ________ vein.
a) innominate
b) azygos
c) external jugular
d) subclavian
e) cephalic

d) subclavian

95) The vein that is formed from the fusion of the subclavian with the internal and external jugulars is the ________ vein.
a) Hemiazygos
b) brachiocephalic (Innominate)
c) Axillary
d) Iliac
e) azygos

b) brachiocephalic (Innominate)

96) The fusion of the brachiocephalic veins forms the
a) Inferior vena cava.
b) Azygos vein.
c) Subclavian vein.
d) Superior vena cava.
e) Innominate vein.

d) Superior vena cava.

97) The deep veins of the lower leg include the ________ veins.
a) small saphenous and posterior tibial
b) internal iliac
c) anterior and posterior tibial and peroneal
d) peroneal and popliteal
e) small saphenous and popliteal

anterior and posterior tibial and peroneal

98) Blood from capillaries on the superior surface of the foot drain into a(n)
a) Small saphenous vein.
b) peroneal vein.
c) plantar vein.
d) iliac vein.
e) dorsal venous arch.

e) dorsal venous arch.

99) Blood from the dorsal venous arch is drained by the ________ vein(s).
a) greater saphenous
b) femoral
c) peroneal
d) posterior tibial
e) iliac

a) greater saphenous?

100) At the knee, small saphenous, tibial, and peroneal veins unite to form the __ vein.
a) popliteal
b) femoral
c) inferior vena cava
d) external iliac
e) internal iliac

a) popliteal

101) When the popliteal vein reaches the femur, it becomes the ___ vein.
a) Lumbar
b) deep femoral
c) internal iliac
d) femoral
e) external iliac

Femoral

102) the fusion of greater saphenous, femoral, and deep femoral veins form the
a) common iliac
b) internal iliac
c) inferior vena cava
d) external iliac
e) azygous

d) external iliac

103) The two common iliac veins form the
a) innominate vein.
b) femoral vein.
c) Inferior vena cava.
d) Greater saphenous vein.
e) Hepatic portal vein.

c) Inferior vena cava.

104) Nutrients from the digestive tract enter the
a) Hepatic vein.
b) Azygos vein.
c) Inferior vena cava.
d) Superior vena cava.
e) Hepatic portal vein.

e) Hepatic portal vein.?

105) Elderly individuals usually have
a) Elevated hematocrits.
b) Stiff inelastic arteries.
c) Increased venous return.
d) Decreased blood pressure.
e) all of the above

b) Stiff inelastic arteries.

106) Elderly individuals are more prone than are younger individuals to have all of the following, except
a) Problems with the conducting system of the heart.
b) Hypertension.
c) Arteriosclerosis.
d) Air embolisms.
e) Venous thrombosis.

d) Air embolisms.

107) ________ from the ________ produce localized changes in blood flow and capillary permeability.
a) Kupffer cells; liver of the digestive system
b) Plasma cells; bone marrow of the skeletal system
c) T-lymphocytes; lymphatic system tissue
d) Mast cells; integumentary system
e) Microglia; nervous system tissue

d) Mast cells; integumentary system

108) The smallest arterial branch is called the
a) Veins
b) venules.
c) arteries.
d) Capillaries
e) Arterioles.

d) arterioles

109) The layer of a blood vessel that separates the tunica media and the tunica externa is the
a) Tunica externa.
b) Internal elastic membrane.
c) Tunica media.
d) External elastic membrane.
e) Tunica intima.

d) External elastic membrane.

110) Diffusion occurs between blood and interstitial fluid in which of the following vessels?
a) veins
b) arteries
c) arterioles
d) venules
e) capillaries

e) capillaries

111) Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?
a) tunica media
b) tunica intima
c) tunica externa
d) internal elastic membrane
e) external elastic membrane

tunica externa

112) After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the
a) veins.
b) arteries.
c) capillaries.
d) artérioles.
e) venules.

e) venules.

113) Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue?
a) external elastic membrane
b) internal elastic membrane
c) tunica intima
d) tunica externa
e) tunica media

e) tunica media

114) The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called
a) capillaries.
b) veins.
c) Arteries
d) venules.
e) Arterioles.

b) veins.

115) In arteries, the thick layer of elastic fibers is called the
a) Tunica intima.
b) Internal elastic membrane.
c) External elastic membrane.
d) Tunica media.
e) Tunica externa.

b)internal elastic membrane

116) Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?
a) internal elastic membrane
b) tunica intima
c) tunica media
d) tunica externa
e) external elastic membrane

b) tunica intima

117) Which type of artery has a poorly defined tunica externa?
a) connective
b) arterioles
c) muscular
d) elastic
e) vascular

b) arterioles

118) Vasoconstriction and vasodilation affect the heart in what way?
a) afterload
b) atrial kick
c) capillary flow
d) peripheral blood pressure
e) all of the above

e) all of the above

119) The femoral artery is an example of which type of artery?
a) vascular
b) muscular
c) connective
d) arteriolar
e) elastic

b) muscular

120) Which vessel is known as a resistant vessel?
a) elastic
b) arteriolar
c) muscular
d) connective
e) vascular

b) arteriolar

121) You are caring for a patient who just underwent an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. In nursing school you learned that complications such as ________ could result from the abdominal aorta being clamped too long during the surgical procedure.
a) Hypertension
b) Tachycardia
c) Rupture of the aneurysm
d) Loss of urinary
e) paraplegia

d) Loss of urinary function

122) Which of the following can result from an aneurysm in the brain?
a) hypertension
b) quadriplegia
c) myocardial infarction
d) stroke
e) all of the above

d) stroke

123) You are caring for five patients on the central nursing unit. Which of your five patients is at greatest risk for a myocardial infarction?
a) 35-year-old white male who smokes 2 packs per day for 20 years
b) 52-year-old white male who runs 3 miles every other day
c) 65-year-old postmenopausal woman
d) 24-year-old Asian female on birth control for 5 years
e) 40-year-old black male who smokes 1 pack per day for 5 years

a) 35-year-old white male who smokes 2 packs per day for 20 yea

124) Arteriosclerosis can lead to
a) Coronary artery disease.
b) Tachycardia.
c) Hypertension.
d) both A and C
e) all of the above

d) both A and C

125) A vein that measures 5 mm would be considered
a) A large vein.
b) An arteriovenule.
c) A medium vein.
d) a venule.

c) A medium vein.

126) The pressure that declines from 35 mm Hg to 18 mm Hg is the
a) Blood pressure.
b) Capillary hydrostatic pressure.
c) peripheral pressure.
d) venous pressure.
e) none of the above

b) Capillary hydrostatic pressure.

127) The inferior vena cava is classified as a(n)
a) venule.
b) large vein.
c) arteriovenule.
d) venous valve.
e) Medium vein.

b) large vein.

128) Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?
a) venous valves
b) large veins
c) medium veins
d) venules
e) arteriovenules

d) venules

129) Arterial pressure is equal to
a) Peripheral pressure.
b) Blood pressure.
c) Capillary hydrostatic pressure.
d) Venous pressure.
e) none of the above

b) Blood pressure.

130) Venous valves are responsible for
a) Pushing blood toward the heart.
b) Pushing blood away from the heart.
c) Preventing back flow.
d) both A and B
e) both A and C

e) both A and C

131) Venoconstriction ________ the amount of blood within the venous system, which ________ the volume in the arterial system.
a) decreases; doubles
b) doubles; decreases
c) increases; reduces
d) reduces; increases
e) none of the above

d) reduces; increases

132) Under normal cardiovascular circumstances, blood flow is ________ cardiac output.
a) greater than
b) lower than
c) equal to
d) less than
e) higher than

c) equal to

133) Compared with other vessels of the human vascular system, ________ pressure is usually low.
a) venous
b) blood
c) capillary hydrostatic
d) peripheral
e) none of the above

a) venous

134) Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?
a) resistance
b) turbulence
c) blood viscosity
d) vessel diameter
e) all of the above

e) all of the above

135) Thin-walled medium-sized vessels that appear collapsed and that may tear easily in gross dissection are
a) Metarterioles.
b) Arteries.
c) venules.
d) arterioles.
e) veins.

c) venules.

136) The layer of the arteriole wall that provides the properties of contractility and elasticity is the
a) Tunica media.
b) Tunica mater.
c) Tunica adventitia.
d) Tunica externa.
e) Tunica intima.

a) Tunica media.

137) Of the following arteries, the one that is an elastic artery is
a) The brachial artery.
b) The external carotid artery.
c) The femoral artery.
d) The subclavian artery.
e) none of the above

d) The subclavian artery.

138) When dehydration occurs, there is
a) A recall of fluids.
b) An increase in the blood colloidal osmotic pressure.
c) Accelerated reabsorption of water at the kidneys.
d) A, B, and C

d) A, B, and C

139) Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increased
a) Blood volume.
b) Venous return.
c) Fluid loss through the kidneys.
d) Sodium ion levels in blood.
e) B and C

c) fluid loss through the kidneys

140) The secretion of ADH and aldosterone is typical of the body's long-term compensation following
a) A serious hemorrhage.
b) A heavy meal.
c) Heavy exercise.
d) Hypertension.
e) A heart attack.

a) A serious hemorrhage.

141) You would expect to find fenestrated capillaries in
a) The pancreas.
b) The spleen.
c) Cardiac muscle.
d) Skin.
e) Skeletal muscles.

a) The pancreas.

142) A sample of tissue displays many large flattened spaces lined by endothelium and filled with blood. Blood enters these spaces by way of arterioles and is drained by venules. This tissue sample may have come from the
a) Heart.
b) Kidneys.
c) Liver.
d) Lungs.
e) Skin.

c) Liver.

143) Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include all of the following, except
a) Lack of exercise.
b) High-fat diets.
c) Obesity.
d) A family history of low blood pressure.
e) Smoking.

d) A family history of low blood pressure.

144) Which of the following contains the greater volume of blood?
a) the normal blood volume of the venous system
b) the normal blood volume of the arterial system
c) Neither is greater.

a) the normal blood volume of the venous system

145) Compression of the common carotid artery at the carotid sinus would result in
a) Unconsciousness.
b) Kidney damage.
c) Liver damage.
d) Pulmonary embolism.
e) Heart attack.

a) Unconsciousness.

146) If blood pressure doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be
a) Unchanged.
b) 4 times greater.
c) 1/4 as much.
d) Halved.
e) Doubled.

e) Doubled.

147) In which of the following would the resistance be greater?
a) a vessel 10 microns in diameter
b) a vessel 1 mm in diameter

a) a vessel 10 microns in diameter

148) In which of the following would the rate of blood flow be lower?
a) a vessel 1 mm in diameter
b) a vessel 10 microns in diameter

b) a vessel 10 microns in diameter

149) How would increased sympathetic stimulation of a blood vessel affect the critical closing pressure of the vessel?
a) It would decrease.
b) It would remain the same.
c) It would increase.

c) It would increase.

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