Study Guide Unit 4 "The Muslims, Africans, and Latin Americans as Europeans Arrived"

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"Crown Jewel" of British Empire

...

"sleeping sickness"

passed by a tsetse fly and affects the nervous system, placing the person in a deep and fatal sleep .African Europeans got this disease and the western coast became known as the white man's graveyard.

Janissaries

30,000 Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.

harem

living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household

assimilate

...

vizier

a prime minister in a Muslim Kingdom or empire

"Sick man of Europe"

the ottoman empire was referred to the sick man of europe. Europe was waiting for it to die (fall) so it could colonize

sultan

the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)

encomienda

..., A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it

purdah

..., a screen used in India to separate women from men or strangers

hacienda

..., the main house on a ranch or large estate

zambos

..., People of mixed Native American and African descent. Lowest tier of social class, with no rights whatsoever.

khans

..., supreme rulers over the torko-mongolian tribes of central asia

Seven Years War

..., Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.

sikh

..., an adherent of Sikhism

castas

..., middle-level status between Europeans and pure minorities (made up of mezitos and mulattoes)

Monroe Doctrine

..., an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

shah

..., title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran

peninsulares

..., Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class

creoles

..., descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status

peonage

..., the practice of making a debtor work for his creditor until the debt is discharged

Mestizo

..., a person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)

Suleiman the Magnificent

..., The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. (p. 526)

Timujin

..., Genghis Khan's birth name

William Wilberforce

..., British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.

Mahdi

..., The last Imam for the Twelvers, believe that he disappeared but will return to save them

Kublai Khan

..., Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China

Tupac Amaru

..., Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.

Abbas

..., The greatest Safavid leader. Reformed government, strengthened military, acquired modern gunpowder weapons. Reformed the government and strengthened the military.

Boers

..., Dutch settlers in south Africa

Toussant L'Ouverture

..., African in Santo Domingo who led insurrection: showed Napoleon would have trouble maintaining control in New World

Babur

..., brilliant general who laid the foundation for the Mughal Empire

Zulus

..., local south africans that resisted control of boers

Simon Bolivar

..., The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

Akbar the Great

..., (1542-1605) Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He is considered to be their greatest ruler. He is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion.

Miguel Hidalgo

..., Mexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions

James Monroe

..., 5th President of the United States

Benito Juarez

..., Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico

Karakorum

..., Capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan, 1162 - 1227.

Taj Mahal

..., beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife

Suez Canal

..., a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea

Baghdad

..., capital and largest city of Iraq

Congo River

a major African river (one of the world's longest)

Niger River

located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river

Cape Colony

a former province of southern South Africa that was settled by the Dutch in 1652 and ceded to Great Britain in 1814

Istanbul

..., the largest city and former capital of Turkey

Islandlwana

a battle, a terrible defeat for the british but it motiviated them to ultimately defeat the zulus, was in south africa

Ain Jalut

..., battle of ain jalut 1260. was the turning point of mongolian empire of mo.
10 thousand mongol soldiers were attacked by 40 thousand muslim soldiers from egypt. egyptain army wins -> was the first defeat of mongols since gheghis khan.
this defeat convinced many that mongols can be beat. also a civil war breaks out between kubilai and ariqbuke. the two brothers fight it out to see who would rule. first time after genghis that a civil war broke out. kubilai wins. this only weakens the mongol rule...eventually they divided into 4 separate states. 1260- turning point for Mongols because of lost battle, civil war, and division of empire

Potosi

..., Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. (p. 479)

Silk Route

..., An overland trade route connecting Asia and the Middle East. Many luxury items such as silk came from China to Middle East along with spices from India. Controlling it was Important to empires because they could control the flow of trade and enforce taxes. A source of tax for empires that controlled portions of it

Dahomey

..., Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.

Potosi

..., Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. (p. 479)

Haiti

..., a republic in the West Indies on the western part of the island of Hispaniola

Ashanti

..., people who live in what is now called Ghana, in west africa, and who are known fro their artful weaving and colorful asasia, or kente cloth.

Isfahan

..., Persian capital from the 16th to 18th centuries found in central Iran

Turkey

Country in western Europe bordering Russia, known for its muslim based empire, the Ottomons.

Iran

..., a theocratic islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia

India (Before 1700)

..., Mughal Empire

Sudan

..., a region of northern Africa south of the Sahara and Libyan deserts

South Africa

..., a republic at the southernmost part of Africa

India (After 1800)

Province of India as it is known today.

Turkey

Which modern nation is still mostly Shiite Muslim?

Nigeria, and Kenya

Which two African countries were not colonized by Europeans in the 19th century?

Tribal influences prevented a change in culture and economy.

Why weren't the above colonies colonized?

Diamonds, fertile land.

What precious materials were discovered in South Africa?

They opened a trade route between the boot, and the tip of Africa.

What impact did the Mongols have on trade from Asia and the Middle East?

They treated them as equals, as they both believed in the same God. They were two different religions though.

How did the Ottoman Empire treat its Christian minority?

South Africa

What was the "white man's graveyard"?

480,000

What is the estimated number of Africans forcibly brought over to the New World?

70% of all Africans died on their way to the Americas.

What was the death rate for Africans in the slave trade?

Brazil

What was the number one destination for slaves in the New World?

So that they could control the trade routes from Africa to Europe

Why was control of the Nile River important to the British Empire?

President Monroe placed a tax on anyone who decided to go against it.

How was the Monroe Doctrine "enforced"?

Brazil

Which Latin American country was a monarchy for several years after independence?

He was not Muslim.

What was one of Akbar's most unusual virtues for a world leader?

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