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False

In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration.

True

Diffusion is always from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration.

False

Facilitated diffusion always requires a carrier protein.

False

pH of urine from a healthy person ranges from 8-11

a. Both potassium and sodium ions can "leak" through the cell membrane due to diffusion.

Which of the following is true regarding the generation of a membrane potential?
a. Both potassium and sodium ions can "leak" through the cell membrane due to diffusion.
b. In the polarized state, sodium and potassium ion concentrations are in static equilibrium.
c. The maintenance of the potential is based exclusively on diffusion processes.
d. When the sodium-potassium pump is activated, potassium is pumped into the cell twice as fast as the sodium is pumped out, thus causing the membrane potential.

d. swell and burst

A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.
a. shrink
b. swell initially, then shrink as equilibrium is reached
c. neither shrink nor swell
d. swell and burst

b. It prevents potassium ions from leaking out and sodium ions from crossing into the cell.

Which of these is not a function of the plasma membrane?
a. It is selectively permeable.
b. It prevents potassium ions from leaking out and sodium ions from crossing into the cell.
c. It acts as a site of cell-to-cell interaction and recognition.
d. It encloses the cell contents.

b. The cells will lose water and shrink.

If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?
a. The cells will swell and ultimately burst.
b. The cells will lose water and shrink.
c. The cells will shrink at first, but will later reach equilibrium with the surrounding solution and return to their original condition.
d. The cells will show no change due to diffusion of both solute and solvent.

b. messenger RNA

Which of the following would not be a constituent of a plasma membrane?
a. glycolipids
b. messenger RNA
c. glycoproteins
d. phospholipids

c. receptor-mediated endocytosis

Which transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?
a. phagocytosis
b. pinocytosis
c. receptor-mediated endocytosis
d. secondary active transport

a. movement of a substance down its concentration gradient

Passive membrane transport processes include ________.
a. movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
b. movement of water from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
c. consumption of ATP
d. the use of transport proteins when moving substances from areas of low to high concentration

a. extracellular sodium levels are high

In the maintenance of the cell resting membrane potential ________.
a. extracellular sodium levels are high
b. cells are more permeable to Na+ than K+
c. the steady state involves only passive processes in all cells
d. the inside of the cell is positive relative to its outside

d. water

The main component of the cytosol is ________.
a. proteins
b. sugars
c. salts
d. water

c. a hypertonic solution

14. Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in ________.
a. an isotonic solution
b. a hypotonic solution
c. a hypertonic solution
d. blood plasma

sodium

The most common extracellular ion is ________.

exocytosis

The process of discharging particles from inside a cell to the outside is called ________.

hypotonic

A red blood cell would swell if its surrounding solution were ________.

No. Because they are passive processes that do not require energy, they can occur in the absence of any cellular processes.

Are Brownian motion, diffusion, and osmosis seen only in living tissue?

Both diffusion and active transport mechanisms operate within the cell membrane to maintain a resting membrane potential.

What forces maintain a steady state "resting" membrane potential?

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of water exerted on the cell membrane. Osmotic pressure is created by different concentrations of molecules in a solution separated by the cell membrane. Because these pressures are exerted on the membrane they can be used by the cell to change the shape of the cell, regulate substances entering and exiting the cell, and bring about the polarity of the cell.

In all living cells hydrostatic and osmotic pressures exist. Define these pressures and explain how they are used in the concept of tonicity of the cell.

It is formed by diffusion of ions resulting in ionic imbalances that polarize the membrane. It is maintained by active transport processes.

How is the resting potential formed? How is it maintained?

Glycogen

Starch is the stored carbohydrate in plants, while ________ is the stored carbohydrate in animals.

The proteins' shapes change

What happens when globular proteins are denatured?

Dissolves more substances than any other fluid; High heat capacity; high heat of vaporization, polarity, and solvent properties.

What properties does water have that make it a very versatile fluid?

An isotonic fluid volume loss occurs when water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportion.

Explain what an isotonic fluid loss means.

Urea, Uric acid, Creatinine

Name the three major nitrogenous wastes found in the urine.

A tap water enema is a hypotonic solution. Based on osmosis, water diffuses to the solution of higher concentration, leading to water intoxication.

You are giving a tap water enema to a patient. An adverse effect of the tap water enema is water intoxication. Explain.

hematuria

presence of erythrocytes in the urine

hemoglobinuria

presence of hemoglobin in the urine

glycosuria

presence of glucose in the urine

albuminaria

presence of albumin in the urine

ketonaria

presence of ketone bodies in the urine

pyruia

presence of pus (white blood cells) in the urine

diabetes insipidus

Low specific gravity

diabetes mellitus,gonorrhea, pyelonephritis

High specific gravity

diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, eating a 5-lb box of sweets for lunch

glucose

glomerulonephritis, pregnancy, exertion

albumin

cystitis, kidney stones

blood cells

hemolytic anemias

hemoglobin

hepatitits, cirrhosis of the liver

bilirubin

cystitis, diabetes melliltus, starvation

ketone bodies

glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis

casts

cystitis, gonorrhea, pyelonephritis

pus

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