Nearly ______ of all African American men in their twenties are under some form of correctional control in the US
probation & parole
Since 1980, a greater proportion of correctional growth has occurred in:
From the earliest accounts of mankind, punishment has been used as a means of ______, forcing people to comply with rules, norms and laws
probation & parole
Roughly 70% of those under correctional control in the US are currently serving the sentence in what ways
carry out the criminal sentence
The central purpose of corrections is to _______
Your authors refer to corrections as a(n)______, a complex whole consisting of interdependent parts whose operations are directed toward common goals and is directly influenced by its environment
Approximately how many Americans are currently incarcerated in a jail or prison?
In the US today, more felons are being sentenced to _______ instead of _______
Corrections can be viewed as a series of processes that are _______, meaning that each process affects another part of the CJ system in some way
The twin goals of corrections are punishment and ________
According to your authors, which of the following is NOT one of the three "P's" of corrections
The majority of correctional activity takes place at the ______ level
Nearly 40% of all offenders are under the correctional control of 4 states (i.e. the Big Four of corrections). Which of the following is NOT one of these states?
In the U.S., jails are operated mainly by what level of government
______ is a system of government in which power and responsibilities are divided between one national government and multiple state governments
those held appending a court appearance
During the Colonial Period, jails were mainly used to house ________
In 1790, the first recognized penitentiary was created in which U.S. city?
The opening of the ________ State penitentiary in 1829 in Cherry Hill, Pennsylvania, marked the full development of the penitentiary system based on the philosophy of separate confinement
Much of the ideas, practices and principles that are the foundation of the American CJ System were adopted from what country?
A _______ is a correctional facility used to house pre-trial detainees and those sentenced for minor offenses
The congregate system, which emphasized isolation of inmates in individual cells at night but permitted them to work together in silence during the day, was first adopted in which US state?
the US Military
Prior to individual statehood, the very first prison facilities in the West were operated by _________
In 1870, the National Prison Association held its historical meeting in what U.S. city?
The __________ model of corrections is based on the assumption that criminal behavior can be controlled by greater use of incarceration and other forms of strict supervision
Which of the following is NOT one of the four commonly accepted goals of criminal sanctions in the U.S.?
Eye for an Eye
The biblical expression "________" is often used to illustrate the underlying premise of the punishment goal of retribution
______ is a goal of punishment which focuses on the notion that both an individual and society as a whole can be discouraged from committing similar crimes through the effective use of certain types of punishments
The goal of punishment which focuses on physically depriving that individual from committing future crimes is commonly referred to as __________
Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham were proponents of which major goal of punishment?
The new goal of punishment which has emerged over the last decade is called ______ justice. This process advocates a type of punishment which is designed to repair losses to the victim and the community while attempting to keep the offender connected to society
A small number of offenders are responsible for a disproportionate number of violent and property crimes
The concept of selective incapacitation centers upon the idea that:
The goal of rehabilitation is orientated mainly toward the _____ and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime
__________ remains the standard punishment for people who commit serious crimes
________ sentences are usually reserved for certain types of offenders, including violent and serious drug offenses and habitual offenders
Fines, forfeiture of illegally gained assets and restitution to victims are all examples of what form of punishment?
A(n)_______ sentence is a fixed period of incarceration and is often associated with the concept of retribution
A dominant purpose to prevent further offenses or to inflict pain on the offender
According to Herbert Packer, which of the following is NOT an element of punishment?
The goal of punishment referred to as ______ asserts that a person who has infringed the rights of others deserves to be penalized or punished
More than 80% of all executions that have taken place in the U.S. since the death penalty was reinstated by the Supreme Court in 1976 have taken place in what region of the country?
Excluding fines, the most frequently applied form of criminal sanction is ____________
Restricting access to public libraries
According to the text, which of the following is NOT an "invisible punishment"?
Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the public and to discourage the commission of the offenses by others is known as _______
Punishments less severe than prison but more restrictive than traditional probation are _______sanctions
The ______ report is a summary prepared by a probation officer who investigates the background of a convicted offender in order to help the judge select and appropriate punishment
Code of Hammurabi
The earliest known forms of codified law were the Sumerian Laws of Mesopotamia (3100 B.C.) and the ________, developed by the King of Babylon in 1750 B.C.E.
_______ is known as the founder of what is now referred to as the Classical School of criminology
Young African American males
One of the most troubling trends in the US Jail system that has occurred over the past two decades is the increasing incarceration rate for ________
Operated as facilities to detain accused people awaiting trial, jails have customarily been run by_________
The _____ system is a system in which jail operations are funded by a set amount paid per day for each inmate held
A large number of inmates (over 30%) are currently housed in _______ jails
A ____ is a temporary holding facility for those who have been arrested and are awaiting an appearance in front of a judge
Comprehensive Crime Control Act
In 1984, the _________ authorized holding allegedly dangerous defendants without bail, for what has become known as preventative detention
Nationally, about _____% of all people placed in jail have been found to be under the influence of alcohol or an illegal drug at the time of the arrest
helps prevent the accused from committing further crimes
Which of the following is NOT one of the main reasons used to support pretrial diversion programs?
Jail sentences are typically reserved for those who have committed misdemeanors and minor felonies and usually do not exceed
to make sure those accused of a crime would show up for their trials
According to the text, the central purpose of the early jail was:
When a correctional officer uses his/her authority to deprive an inmate of their _____ rights, that inmate can sue to halt the violation and collect damages
One of the best ways to reduce ________ is to develop specific standards for routine jail operation practices and procedures
Recently, there has been a major emphasis on programs to ________ offenders awaiting trial
Over 1 in 7 jails is operating under a ______ of one type of another, typically related to overcrowding
_______ supervision is a method of correctional management in which staff members have direct physical contact with inmates throughout the day
Generally, it has been found that building new jails or _____ the capacity of existing facilities has little impact on the problem of crowding
According to the last jail census, most jail employees (72%) are expected to perform ______ duties as their primary responsibility
New-generation jails are the most recent development in jail design. Which of the following is NOT one of the general concepts used within this design?
Jails are considered to be the ______ corrections
In the 1800's, the main goal of the jail began to change in response to the ________ movement
_______ refers to a type of jail confinement in which the accused is locked up in order to protect the community from the potential crimes the accused may commit if released before trial
Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the most significant problems facing jail inmates today?
Release on Recognizance (ROR)
By far the most successful pretrial release program has been __________
Today the most pressing medical issue in jails relates to offenders with _______ accounting for 7% of jail deaths annually in the U.S.
_____, a Boston boot maker, was the first recorded probation officer in the U.S., dating back to 1841
The goal of ______ is to minimize the probability that an offender will commit a new offense, especially by applying tight controls over the probationer's activities and maintaining careful surveillance
It is estimated that 1 out of every 5 probationers in the U.S. today has committed a _____ crime resulting in their current probation
All of the following are ways in which those convicted in the US are currently placed on probation, except:
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major problems your authors cite regarding intermediate sanctions?
According to your authors, proponents of boot camps argue that young offenders get involved in crime because they lack ________
under community supervision
More than two-thirds of people under correctional authority are ______
Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a smaller, specialized caseload is know as _________
The most important issue concerning the use of intermediate sanctions has to do with both sentencing philosophy and _______
when prison alternatives are correctly applied to non-prison cases, they cannot ________
Because intermediate sanctions rely on discretion there is more of an opportunity for _______
Originally, probation was mainly used for ______ offenders
White and male
The majority of probationers in the US are ____________
Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?
Strove for equality in all matters
Between 1200 and 1827, English common law _______
1940s through 1960s
The medical model of probation was popular in which of the following time periods?
Which US state passed the nation's first Comprehensive Community Corrections Act in 1973?
was declared unconstitutional in 1916
Judicial reprieve in the United States ________
Continuum of Sanctions
Intermediate sanctions fit the concept of _______, which is a range of punishments that vary in intrusiveness and control
According to your authors, the two most common types of intermediate sanctions used to lessen prison overcrowding in the US are _______ and boot camps
The idea that different forms of intermediate sanctions can be calibrated to make them equivalent as punishments despite their differences in approach is known as the principle of ______
The PSI process typically begins with a(n)_______ interview
The performance-based movement calls for a reshaping of the philosophy of probation with a new emphasis on ______
Two techniques that are crucial to enhance the validity and reliability of PSI reports are _____ and ______
Case management systems help focus the supervision effort of probation officers on _______
Probation officers traditionally perform two basic functions: ______ and supervision
In many jurisdictions, probation officers are legally classified as "_____" officer, with the power to arrest
Probationers commonly resent their _______ even when people think they should be grateful for "another chance"
Which of the following is NOT one of the five principle components of a case management system?
Williams v. New York
In what case did the Supreme Court rule that the defendant does not have a right to receive a copy of the presentence investigation report?
Leaving one's jurisdiction without permission is an example of a ________ violation of probation
Trenton State Prison (NJ)
________, the oldest prison in America, was built in 1798 and still houses inmates today
Which of the following is not one of the 3 main models of incarceration which have dominated the US correctional systems over the last six decades?
Which of the following prison designs is most often used today for maximum security prisons in the US?
Most federal inmates in the US tend to be _________
Corrections Corporation of America
What corporation dominates the private correctional industry in the US?
Nearly ___% of all state-level inmates are housed in maximum security facilities
Currently, the largest racial/ethnic group in state-level US prisons is ________
The nations first prisons were built utilizing the _____ design
Which of the following is not one of the 4 basic prison designs currently used in the US?
Over the past two decades, the incarceration rate has _____, while the crime rate has _______
A set of rules of conduct that reflects the values and norms of the prison society is referred to as the ______
The process where most new inmates absorb the customs of prison society and learn to adapt to the environment is referred to as:
Cans of tuna
Due to the fact that real money is prohibited in prison and many facilities have become 'non-smoking', _______ have become the new standard form of currency in many prisons
Scholars report that female inmates tended to adopt which of the following rather than identifying with the larger prison subculture?
They are having their 1st baby
According to the textbook authors, which of the following is NOT true of most pregnant inmates