an opinion, chosen by human faculties, that is contrary to the Holy Scripture, and that is openly taught/defended. One makes a conscious decision. Not simply holding this idea, but advocating it. Only applies to those who fall under the Christian faith. Need to stubbornly refuse that they are wrong.
bishops are in charge of deciding whether something is heresy or not. If anyone argues against the bishop, then they are arguing against the doctrines. If bishops are the ones who are being questioned, then the church councils have the authority. Beliefs become more centralized.
Centralization of beliefs
authority of the bishops/church councils increases.
badge, that would mark you as a heretic. Kept you from employment. Excommunication, that kept you from receiving the holy rites in burial. Deprived of Holy marriage, which meant that your marriage was not valid. Burning was not extremely common, while the rest were only interrogated. Moore claims that many controversies became doctrines.
Time of Reform for the Church (11th-13th centuries)
papal reform under Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085). Argue that there is too much simony. Against clerical marriage. Support of liberation of church. Wealth of the church questioned. Tithes form burden.
when positions are sold for money, given to highest bidder. Corruption by material desires, money-based.
seen as impure by Pope Gregory VII. Priests would live with concubines, have children. Represented an entanglement of material affairs.
Liberation of the church
less consideration for politics, more for spiritual matters. Would increase the power of the church.
Wealth of the church
against material possessions. Donations come from the members of the church were high. Church held the most land property in the West. Forced tithes. Exempted the nobles, clerics, monastic from paying these dues.
source of resentment. People were forced to pay required taxed, and forced to give 10% of their production to the church (which was essentially income). Nobility, church, and monasteries were exempt from these dues, which meant that the burden fell upon the working class.
very similar to the reforms of the church. Echoed ideas about purity, wealth, and a move towards the more spiritual. Guided by Stephen of Muret.
Stephen of Muret (1124)
advocated for the simple and unostentatious. Led the reform movement for the French monasteries. Claimed that they do not follow any order/ rule, only the Gospel (which becomes the authority). His message is accepted and inspires reform, although effects were very small.
led to responses to these social changes. Profit-based economy was based on trade, money exchange, manufacturing.
based on trade, money exchange, manufacturing. Led to preoccupation of money that brought wealth and problems. Cities grow around intersections.
Structure of cities
reflected a hierarchy. Wall communities for the wealthy who profited greatly from the economic boom, which kept the poor proletariats out. Workers forced to live in the suburbs, under the walls of the cities. Economic boom didn't benefit all.
turn towards helping the poor. Dealing with these social problems and social conflicts. Could these be interpreted as heretical movements? Some claimed that this went too far, because these social changes weren't target of change.
monk from the Netherlands who said that monks should live a simpler life. His message is morphed → members of the clergy who asked for excessive amounts of money gave sacraments that were not valid. Related back to the Donatist Schism. (excessive→ invalid). Defended the peasants and claimed that they shouldn't pay these tithes. Was eventually killed by a priest, which was seen as an individual action, not systematic murder. Reflected the thought of society.
Catharism (12th-14th century)
becomes a mass movement.
Greek for purification. Society that called themselves pure. Go from the East to the West (opposite to the Crusades), based on trade route. Return to dualism from Gnosticism, which the papacy was trying to fight against.
provided a thought based on dualism (good vs. bad) that Catharism used.
Church reaction to Catharism
church seemed defenseless because it had already fought against dualism. Reaction was extremely ineffective.
church reaction to Catharism. Becomes effective. Showed a reference to Augustine, consult the Dominicans, witness executions for the first time after their trial. Becomes manifestation of church action.
The case of St. Francis of Assissi (1182-1226)
held entity with the poor (brown tunic, emphasized on the poor. Came from wealthy family. Bad health leads to visions, which keep him from becoming a merchant. Sells everything and gives the money away. Father publicly disinherits him. Francis removes all of his clothing. Begins to preach and help the needy for his own salvation. Saves lepers. Gets many followers. Is he a heretic? Infuses many religious aspects in his work, but isn't a priest. Hadn't confirmed his faith. Potentially dangerous to the Catholic Church.
Pope Innocent III
says that Francis doesn't need to go to the monastery. Allows him to found a new religious order, the Mendicants. Embraces them before they became heretics and channels their power towards the support of the church. Wished to use Francis of Assisi as a way to save the church from its growing unpopularity.
religious order that wasn't based on a monastery. Organizes the Inquisition.
Sentences produced during the Inquisition (1308-23)
Bernard interrogated those who were related to heresy. Cross-wearing was a sign of infamy. Most were sentenced to prison as a form of punishment. Many were convicted after their death.
done by collecting evidence in a very scientific manner. Huge improvement since it now required evidence instead of merely pointing and accusing. Yet, once someone was accused, they would be interrogated and exhausted until they point where they were somehow found guilty of their crime. But, it still became very efficient and systematic, and they kept records so that they could use that proof against you.
excerpts from the Bible were highlighted and illustrated (for French Royal families). Ex. God oversees the kings attacking the Jews. Scene taken from the Old Testament, which prefigured the New Testament. Shows that Christ wanted retribution, and wanted to avenge himself against the Jews. These bibles were made by the literati. Apostles seem to beg the king to kill the Jews.
clerks that were responsible for producing the moralizing bibles that instructed the readers and the king for his social legislation. Were only trying to teach the readers a moral lesson, not incite violence. Very ambiguous interpretations.
group commentaries, similar to a blog, from university students. Difficult to analyze because so many students would come and modify the writings regularly.