# Physical Science 9-weeks Study Guide

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hypothesis

### When designing an experiment, the first step is to

state the problem

control

### A factor that changes in an experiment from manipulation of the independent variable is the

dependent variable

constant

experiment

scientific law

theory

model

technology

observation

### A measurement standard is defined as

an exact quantity people agree to use for comparison

K

### In a graph, the variable on the horizontal axis is the

independent variable

circle graph

### In a graph showing how the temperature of a material changes over time, temperature change is the

dependent variable

derived

g/cm^3

kg

greater than

position

### The speed you read on a speedometer is

instantaneous speed

velocity

s= d/t

### A single point on a distance-time graph tells that

instantaneous speed

velocity

velocity

### If you ride your bike up a hill, then ride down the other side, your acceleration is

first negative, then positive

vf-vi/t

force

inertia

the airplane

### a passenger in the rear seat of a car moving at a steady speed is at rest relative to

the front seat of the car

### Which distance can be most accurately measured with a ruler?

the width of a book

1000

km/h

### Speed is the ratio of the distance an object moves to

the amount of time needed to travel the distance

### Instantaneous speed is measured

at a particular instant

at rest

acceleration

### Which example describes constant acceleration due ONLY to a change in direction?

traveling around a circular track

### An object that is accelerating may be

all of the above (slowing down, gaining speed, changing direction)

### What is instantaneous acceleration?

how fast a velocity is changing at a specific instant

### Which of the following statements is true?

An object at rest has an instantaneous acceleration of zero.

air resistance

### The relationship among mass, force , and acceleration is explained by

Newton's second law of motion

Air resistance

### In the absence of air, a penny and a feather that are dropped from the same height at the same time will

fall at the same reate

9.8 m/s^2

F=ma

### When an object moves in a circular path, it accelerates toward the center of the circle as a result of

centripetal force

curved

acceleration

### The size of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their

masses and the distance between them

action-reaction

has greater mass

momentum

### The statement "to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" is

Newton's third law of motion

kgxm/s

### When two balls collide, the momentum of the balls after the collision is explained by

the law of conservation of momentum

weightless

fall straight

newton

1N = 1 kgm/s^2

### When an unbalanced force acts on an object

the object accelerates

equal to zero

fluid

### As you push a cereal box across a tabletop, the sliding friction acting on the cereal box

acts in the direction opposite of motion

### The forces acting on a falling leaf are

gravity and air resistance

### An open parachute increases air resistance of a falling sky diver by

increasing surface area

### Projectile motion is caused by

the downward force of gravity and an initial forward velocity.

inertia

### An orange might roll off your cafeteria tray when you stop suddenly because of

the orange's inertia

### According to Newton's second law of motion, the acceleration of an object equals the net force actin on the object divided by the object's

mass

mass times the acceleration due to gravity

### The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Mars is about one third the acceleration due to gravity on Earth's surface. The weight of a space probe on the surface of Mars is about

one third its weight on Earth's surface.

### Newton's third law of motion describes

action and reaction forces

all of the above

momentum

electric

### When opposite poles of two magnets are brought together, the poles

attract each other

strong nuclear

nuclear decay

gravitational

### As an astronaut travels far away from Earth, her weight

decreases because gravity decreases

### The gravitational force between two objects increases as mass

increases or distance decreases.

### The force that keeps an object in a circle is called

centripetal force

height

speed

joules

potential

speed

potential

friction

### Green plants convert light energy from the sun into

chemical potential energy

remains constant

### The law of __ states that energy in a system can change forms but can never be created or destroyed.

conservation of energy

velocity

does not affect

joule

KE=1/2m x v^2

GPE = m x 9.8

upright piano

kinetic energy

energy

remains constant

energy

energy

kinetic energy

its speed

all of the above

### Why is the gravitational potential energy of an object 1 meter above the moon's surface less than its potenial energy 1 meter above Earth's surface?

the object's acceleration due to gravity is less on the moon

### The gravitational potential energy of an object is always measured relative to the

reference level from which the height is measured.

thermal energy

chemical energy

thermal energy

chemical

electrical

electromagnetic

all of the above

### If no friction acts on a diver during a dive, then which of the following statements is true?

KE + PE = KE + PE

### the mechanical energy of an object equals its

kinetic energy plus its potential energy

mass

### In which of the following does Einstein's famous equation apply?

nuclear fission and fusion reactions

all of the above

### A drawback of solar energy is that it

depends on the climate

water

Example: