English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
government official, close to the king, likeable, sponsored taxes, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea,
This person was a pioneer in the field of selective animal breeding. He bred animals for certain characteristics.
wrote the Travels, which pointed out the failures of the French agricultural system
One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers
Population Explosion 1700s
there was a huge growth caused by migration from rural to urban, lower death rate, and more kids (b/c more kids=more $). ?
English potter (1730-1795)
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
1705 invented steam engine that used coal, very inefficient.
what entrepreneur paid james watt's salary so he could build better engines
(1780's) Inventor of the puddling system in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce an iron of high quality.
Women's work patterns
At first, women work a lot with the men, but as children become more prominent in the work force, mothers are needed less. As a result, only single women really do work, while most women are domestic and maintain their separate spheres.
caused by political, social, racial, and ethnic conflict erupting in the streets
New police forces
Created as a result of the population growth in big cities, which caused an increase in crime. Direct sign of industrial revolution.
changed the system from punitive to one offering treatment and rehabilitation
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market (1772-1823)
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction,-communistic in nature.
a French politician and journalist during revolution who wanted to abolish private property and eliminate private enterprise.
Constitution of the Year III
a document that reflected the Themoridian determination to reject contitutional monarchy and democracy; provided for the Council of Elders and the Council of Five Hundred
Whiff of Grapeshot
when mobs of parisians joined national guardsmen bent on toppling the republic the goverment called on Napoleon to dispell the crowds and he did so in 1795
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Coup d'etat of Fructidor
Napoleon sent a general to execute this coup in September 4, 1797 because there were thoughts that it was becoming too royalist. Many were expelled from different councils and elections were partly cancelled.
Coup d'etat of 1799
Napoleon disposing of the directory
Consulate and first consul
confidence from below. authority from above. NB is 1st consulate. power based on Army and burecracy. NB evetually became king and then emperor. Consul for life
The Empire of Napoleon
the empire of Napoleon I of France. It was the dominant power of much of continental Europe during the early 19th century.
Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Invasion of Russia
Napoleon's most disastrous military campaign. Russian winter forced Napoleon to retreat, lead to his downfall
after Napoleon returned from Elba, he was only popular again for ________ before being exiled to St. Helena for life
Bourbon restored on the French throne by the Quadruple Alliance. Surprisingly, he maintained Napoleon's Concordant and Civil Code. However, liberals disliked his moderation.
financial expert, wanted to reform government, abolish tariffs and reduce court spending. L16 liked him but when he wanted to tax the First and Second Estates they booted him.
Cahiers de doleances
statements of local grievances drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General, advocating a regular constitutional government abolishing fiscal privileges of the church and nobility
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
The Great Fear
When the peasants were afraid that the nobles would send robbers to kill them. It was a result of the storming of Bastille
Storming the Bastille
July 14, 1789 event; 1st sybolic act of violence against the monarchy the beginning of the French Revolution
Night of Renunciation
To reestablish order, the National Assembly on the famous "night of August 4" dismantles the entire feudal system. In one blow, feudal privileges, the tithe, noble hunting rights, labor services, and serfdom are all destroyed.
Declaration of the rights of man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the rights of man and woman
The Declaration of man gave rights only to men who owned land and the declaration of woman by Olympe de Gouges wrote a very similar one but where women were included as well.
Revolt of the women
7000 parisian women marched upon Versailles demanding bread; then they demanded that the royal family return to Paris , so they did
Restructuring of France
Turned from an absolutist government to a constitutional monarchy. Became more "enlightened".
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Civil constitution of the clergy
passed July 12, 1790 during the French Revolution, subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government
Constitution of 1791
all 3 estates have equal power in government, National Assembly becomes Legasliative Assembly, absolute monarchy is abolished, forcing the king to obey
Flight to varennes
King Louis XVI and his families attempt to escape paris; made it only to Varennes where they were arrested and put on house arrest. End of French Monarchy
Declaration of pillnitz
the promise by Austria and Prussia to protect the French monarchy
Paris Commune killed people in prisoners for no apparent reasons other than the fact they believed they were counterrevolutionaries
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
fear of counter revolution --> French stages preemptive attak (fear that Marie & Louis helping Austria)
1792, during the radical stage. Austria and Prussia made this saying that they would destroy Paris if any harm came to the French king(Louis XVI)
an angry mob invaded the palace and a battle took place. Causes the king to lose all power, and now France has a con-mon w/o a king! (What will they do?!)
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.
Committee of public safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
The main leader of The Mountain and the man who ruled France after the First Revolution
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Levee en Masse
The creation under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.
Cult of Reason
Official religion at the height of radical Jacobinism in France from 1793-94.
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
The violent backlash in France against the rule of Robspierre that began with his arrest and execution in July 1794, or 9 Thermidor in the French revolutionary calendar. Most of the instruments of Terror were dismantled, Jacobins were purged from public office, and Jacobin supporters were harassed or even murdered.