type of wasting where large masses of water and sediment move without aid of water
dry, gravity driven mass wasting
type of wasting where large masses of water and sediment moves into another fluid
wet, gravity driven mass wasting
type of fluid flow of water or air when sediment interacts with overriding moving fluid
direct fluid flow
Why is dry, gravity driven mass wasting a very important process?
they bring large quantites of weathered material to the long distance
rocks that fall off cliff face
deposit that is collected at cliff base
mass dislocation of large volumes of rock debris
when framework pieces fit together like pieces of a puzzle at a wide range of scales
flow with parallel streamlines
flow with crisscrossing eddies and vortieces
the physical property of all fluids that resists flowage
What is the transition from laminar to turbulent flow associated with?
velocity, viscosity, boundary roughness, and flow confinement
velocity of fluid interfacial wave
When Fr<1 and C>V
When Fr>1 and C<V
When Fr=1 and C=V
What are the most common conditions found in sedimentary geology?
subcritical and turbulent flow
the process conditions where a grain is maintained in the motion of the overriding moving fluid
the process of lifting a grain from the sediment-water interface and incorporating in to the fluid flow for transport
the condition where gravity forces dominate and a grain is no longer transported
the flow velocity that can entrain a particular grain
total force applied by a moving fluid
vector component from Bernoulli eq.
vector component from frictional drag
gravity acting through center of a grain
When does entrainment occur?
fluid forces act at a pivot angle exceeding gravity force
When does transport occur?
drag component exceeding gravity force
When does deposition occur?
gravity force exceeds fluid forces
rolling and sliding along sediment-water interface
bouncing along sediment-water interface
fully entrained in flow
the greater the clay content and more muddy sediment is compacted the greater the cohesives forces are
morphologic features that develop along non-cohesive sediment-fluid interface under turbulent flow
If the Fr is less than 1 then what types of bedforms form?
lower and upper plane beds, ripples, dunes, antidunes
several processes and deposits that transports sediment-water mixtures flowing down slope by gravity
sediment gravity flow
Types of sediment gravity flows
grain flow, fluidized flow, debris and mud flow, and turbidity current