Anatomy Test 3

Created by micahleiss 

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Blood pressures in systemic circulation:

1. systolic pressure
2. diastolic pressure
3. pulse pressure
4. mean arterial pressure

Systolic pressure (SP):

pressure exerted on the aorta and arteries during ventricular systole

Systolic pressure at rest:

120 mmHg

Systolic pressure increases with age because:

the arteries become less compliant

Diastolic pressure (DP):

pressure exerted on aorta and arteries during ventricular diastole

Diastolic pressure at rest:

80 mmHg

Pulse pressure calculation:

SP-DP;
120-80= 40 mmHg

Mean arterial pressure (MAP) blood pressure calculation:

average of SP and DP;
(120+80)/2= 100 mmHg

Pressure that drives blood through vessels:

mean arterial pressure

Mean arterial pressure causes:

exchange of fluids through capillaries in tissues

Mean arterial pressure decreases:

the farther away from the heart along the circulatory pathway because of peripheral resistance to blood flow

Resistance to flow increases about ____% in ____.

55, arterioles

Arterioles are the main regulators of:

blood pressure

MAP:

BP-CO x PR (peripheral resistance)

Increase CO then:

increase MAP

Increase PR then:

increase MAP

Main factors determining PR:

viscosity of blood
diameter of arterioles

If blood viscosity is high:

blood is thick; PR is increased

If blood viscosity is ow:

blood is thin; PR is decreased

Control center:

vasomotor center (VM) located in medulla oblongata

Vasomotor tone center:

sends out few but continuous nerve impulses over sympathetic nerves to arteriolar smooth muscle

The vasomotor center sends out:

few but continuous nerve impulses

The vasomotor center sends nerve impulses over:

sympathetic nerves to arteriolar smooth muscle

Vasomotor tone center maintains:

slight state of vasoconstriction in arterioles

Increased output of VM center above normal produces:

increased vasoconstriction

Decreased output of VM center below normal produces:

vasodilation

Vasoconstriction increases:

peripheral resistance

Vasodilation decreases:

peripheral resistance

Regulatory mechanisms related to PR:

vasomotor baroreflex
vasomotor chemoreflex

Baroreceptors/pressoreceptors location:

carotid sinus and aortic arch

Carotid sinus is in the:

common carotid artery

Baroreceptors are sensitive to:

change in MAP

Baroreceptors send nerve impulses to ____ in VM baroreflex.

the vasomotor center

Carotid baroreceptors connect to the:

glossopharyngeal nerve

Aortic receptors connect to the:

vagus nerve

When changes occur in blood pressure, the receptors will send:

more or less impulses ultimately by way of their nerves to the VM center

VM center location:

medulla

Vasomotor baroreflex-INCR MAP:

aortic and carotid baroreceptors DECR output to vagus and gloss nerve-->
reduced number of nerve impulses to VM center-->
DECR output of sympathetic impulses to arterioles-->
arterioles vasodilate-->
DECR PR; DECR MAP toward normal

In vasomotor baroreflex INCR MAP, aortic and carotid baroreceptors:

decrease output to vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves

In vasomotor baroreflex INCR MAP, there is a ____ number of nerve impulses to the vasomotor center.

reduced

In VM baroreflex INCR MAP, there is a ____ of ____ ____ to arterioles.

DECR, sympathetic impulses

In VM baroreflex INCR MAP, arterioles:

vasodilate

In VM baroreflex INCR MAP, PR ____ and MAP ___ toward normal.

DECREASES, DECREASES

Vasomotor baroreflex- DECR MAP:

aortic and carotid baroreceptors INCR output to vagus and gloss nerve-->
vagus and gloss nerve sends more impulses to the VM center-->
VM center sends more symp impulses to the arterioles-->
arterioles vasoconstrict-->
INCR PR, INCR MAP

VM baroreflex DECR MAP, aortic and carotid baroreceptors:

INCR output to vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves

In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, the vagus and gloss nerve sends:

more impulses to the VM center

In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, the VM sends:

more sympathetic impulses to the arterioles

In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, arterioles:

vasoconstrict

In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, vasoconstriction leads to:

INCR PR and INCR MAP

Chemoreceptors are located in:

internal carotid artery and aortic arch (aka aortic and carotid bodies)

Chemoreceptors are sensitive to:

low oxygen, high carbon dioxide, and low pH of blood

Chemoreceptors send nerve impulses to:

the VM center

Carotid chemoreceptors send impulses:

over the glossopharyngeal nerve

Aortic chemoreceptors send impulses:

over the vagus nerve

Vasomotor chemoreflex:

DECR oxygen levels in arteries-->
aortic and carotid chemoreceptors send impulses over respective nerves to VM center-->
VM center INCR symp impulses to arterioles-->
arterioles vasoconstrict-->
INCR PR and INCR MAP-->
INCR blood flow through lungs and INCR oxygen uptake into blood to normal levels

Vasomotor chemoreflex sequence of events is affected by:

high altitudes or internal hemorrhage

Vasomotor chemoreflex stimulus:

lack of oxygen in arteries

In VM chemoreflex, the VM center ____ ____ impulses to arterioles

increases sympathetic

In VM chemoreflex, arterioles:

vasoconstrict

In VM chemoreflex, vasoconstriction of arterioles leads to:

INCR in PR and MAP

INCR MAP in VM chemoreflex leads to:

INCR blood flow through lungs and INCR oxygen uptake into blood to normal levels

Regulatory mechanisms related to CO:

physiological center (cardiac center)
cardiac baroreflex
cardiac chemoreflex

Branches of cardiac center:

cardioacceleratory center (CA)
cardioinhibitory center (CI)

The CA and CI are found in:

the medulla

Baroreceptors in carotid sinus and aortic arch connect to:

the cardiac center by the gloss and vagus nerves

Carotid sinus connects to:

the gloss nerve

Aortic arch connects to:

the vagus nerve

Cardiac baroreflex (Marley's law of the heart):

inverse relationship of heart rate and blood pressure, if one goes up the other goes down

Cardiac baroreflex-INCR MAP- aortic and carotid baroreceptors both respond to:

change in arterial pressure

Aortic and carotid baroreceptors at the same time:

inhibit the CA center and stimulate the CI center

CA center=

less NE at SA node

CI center=

more ACh at SA node

Both actions of CA center and CI center leads to:

DECR rate of SA node, DECR HR, DECR CO, DECR MAP toward normal

Cardiac baroreflex- DECR MAP: aortic and carotid baroreceptors both respond to:

change in arterial pressure

Aortic and carotid baroreceptors both at the same time:

will inhibit the CA center and stimulate the CI center

CA center=

more NE at SA node

CI center=

less ACh at SA node

Both actions of CA center and CI center leads to:

INCR rate of SA node, INCR HR, INCR CO, INCR MAP toward normal

Cardiac chemoreflex receptors and nerves are:

the same as involved in the VM chemoreflex

Cardiac chemoreflex stimulus:

DECR oxygen levels in arterial blood

Cardiac chemoreflex sequence of events:

aortic and carotid chemoreceptors both stimulate the CA center in inhibit the CI center-->
CA center= more NE at SA node
CI center= less ACh at SA node
Combo of these events leads to INCR rate of SA-->
INCR HR-->
INCR CO-->
INCR MAP-->
INCR blood flow through lungs and INCR oxygen uptake into blood toward normal levels

Starling's law of the heart:

INCR venous return-->INCR SV-->INCR CO, which returns VR to normal and keeps MAP normal

Bainbridge reflex:

...

INCR VR raises:

blood pressure in the RA and in the vena cava

Baroreceptors in these areas respond to:

increased pressure

Baroreceptors send nerve impulses to:

CA center and CI center

CA center stimulates:

sympathetic input to the heart

CI center inhibits:

parasympathetic input to the heart

Sympathetic input does 2 things:

some fibers go to the ventricular myocardium; others go to the SA node

Fibers going to ventricular myocardium cause:

INCR force of contraction
INCR SV

Fibers going to the SA node cause:

INCR rate of SA node
INCR HR

When both SV and HR increase:

INCR CO, which leads to DECR VR and DECR MAP toward normal

Components of blood:

plasma
formed elements

Percentage of plasma that is water:

92%

Plasma serves as a:

solvent of suspension medium

Plasma transports:

substances in circulatory system throughout the body

Soluble constituents:

plasma proteins
NPN substances
organic nutrients
hormones
electrolytes
gases

Plasma proteins make up:

7% of plasma

Types of plasma proteins:

serum albumin
serum globulins
prothrombin
fibrinogen

Percentage of plasma proteins that is serum albumin:

60%

Percentage of plasma proteins that is serum globulin:

36%

Serum globulins include:

a-1-globulin
a-2-globulin
b-globulin
y-globulin

Which globulins aid in transport?

a-1-globulin
a-2-globulin
b-globulin

Y-globulins are associated with:

antibodies

Prothrombin and fibrinogen are associated with:

blood clotting

Functions of plasma proteins (5):

1. maintenance of osmotic balance
2. regulation of blood pH of 7.4
3. transport of lipid substances
4. protection against infection
5. blood clotting

Maintenance of osmotic blood balance is between:

blood plasma and all tissue fluids (Starling-Landis Law of the Capillaries)

Forces involved with maintenance of osmotic balance:

hydrostatic pressure of blood
colloid osmotic pressure of blood

Hydrostatic pressure of blood:

pressure of blood exerted on walls of blood capillaries

Hydrostatic pressure of blood is HIGH at:

the arteriole end of capillary

Hydrostatic pressure of blood is LOW at:

venule end of capillary

Colloid osmotic pressure of blood is produced:

mainly by the concentration of proteins in blood plasma

What contributes slightly to colloid osmotic pressure of blood?

other dissolved molecules and Na+

Mechanism for fluid exchange:

influence of hydrostatic pressure
influence of colloid osmotic pressure

Influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP):

-HIGH at arteriole end of capillaries
-high pressure causes fluid to flow from capillaries into tissue spaces

Influence of hydrostatic pressure becomes reduced at the:

venule end of capillaries

COP is LOW at:

arteriole end of capillaries

As blood flows through capillaries...

some fluid is lost to tissues

Proteins are retained in the:

blood plasma

Because proteins are retained in the blood plasma, COP is higher at:

the venule end of capillaries

Fluid moves into:

capillaries from tissues

The span of blood pH is:

7.35-7.45

Transport of lipid substances in blood plasma is by:

lipoproteins

The lipoproteins that transport lipid substances in blood plasma include:

a-1-globulins
a-2-globulins
b-globulins

Lipid substances:

cholesterol
triglycerides
steroid hormones
fat-soluble vitamins

Fat soluble vitamins examples:

A, D, E, K

Protection against infection:

specific y-globulins combine with antigenic substances to stimulate their destruction

Antigenic substances:

microorganisms
toxins
other antigenic chemicals

Blood clotting is an:

elaborate set of biochemical reactions

Blood clotting includes:

prothrombin
fibrinogen
other plasma proteins that convert blood from a fluid to a semisolid

Fluid:

sol

Semisolid:

gel

Non-protein nitrogenous substances:

urea
uric acid
creatinine

Urea:

waste product from protein catabolism

Uric acid:

waste product from nucleic acid catabolism

Creatinine:

waste product of muscle metabolism

Organic nutrients:

glucose
amino acids
lipids
vitamins

Glucose:

blood sugar

Lipids:

fatty acids and triglycerides

Electrolytes:

inorganic salts

Electrolytes include:

cations
anions

Cations:

Na+1
K+1
Ca+2
Mg+2

Anions:

Cl-1
HCO3-1
PO4-3
SO4-2

Gases:

CO2, O2, N2

Formed elements:

erythrocytes, leukocytes, and blood platelets

Erythrocytes:

RBC

Leukocytes:

WBC

Platelets:

portions of cells

Hematocrit:

packed cell volume

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