Post - Test Science - Mitchell Hall

75 terms by carolapa 

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SCIENCE DATA/ Mitchell Hall

carbohydrates

a sugar or starch, which living things use for energy

development

the changes that occur as a living thing grows

digestion

process by which living things break down food

nutrients

any chemical found in foods that are needed by a living thing

organelles

tiny structures inside a cell

organs

group of different tissues that work together

protiens

chemical used by living things to build and repair body parts and regulate body activities

reproduction

process by which living things produce offspring

cell

the basic unit of life

organism

living thing that can carry out all the basic life activities

property

a quality that describes an object

chloroplast

captures light energy from the sun to make food

nucleus

information and control center of a cell

vacuole

stores substances such as food, water, and waste products

cell membrane

thin layer that surrounds and holds a cell together, decides what can enter or leave a cell

metamorphosis

a major change in form that occurs as some animal develop into adults

vertebra

one of the bones or blocks of cartilage that makes up the backbone

habitat

place where an organism lives

chromosome

a rod-shaped structure that contains DNA and is found in the nucleus of a cell

enviornment

an organism's surroundings

endangered species

there are almost no animals left of the species

biome

an ecosystem found over a large geographic area

consumer

an organism that feeds on other organisms

resource

a thing that an organism uses to live

ecosystem

interactions among the populations of a community and non-living things in their enviornment

extinct

when all members of a species are dead

pollution

anything added to the environment that is harmful to living things

community

group of different populations that live in the same area

ecology

the study of the interactions among living things and the non-living things in their environment

amphibian

a vertebrate that lives at first in the water then on land

reptile

an egg laying vertebrate that breathes with lungs

gill

structure used by some animals to breathe in water

cellular respiration

the process in which cells break down food to release energy

stamen

the male organ of reproduction of the flower

pollen

tiny grains containing sperm

pistle

female organ of reproduction in the flower

ovary

lower part of the pistle that contains the egg

nectar

a sweet liquid that many kinds of flowers produce

germinate

start to grow into a new plant

psuedopod

part of some one celled organisms that sticks out like a foot to move the cell along

clone

in horticulture and biology, any organism whose genetic information is identical to that of a "mother organism" from which it was created

cystic fibrosis

is a genetic disorder known to be an inherited disease of the secretory glands, including the glands that make mucus and sweat.

DNA

is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses

gene

The DNA segments that carries genetic information

dominant gene

If an organism inherits two alleles that are at odds with one another, and the phenotype of the organism is determined completely by one of the alleles, then that allele is said to be dominant

Downs syndrome

is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome.. Often Down syndrome is associated with some impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth as well as facial appearance

generation

a stage or degree in a succession of natural descent

heredity

is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors

inheretance

the genetic characters transmitted from parent to offspring, taken collectively

mutation

are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism

offspring

child or animal in relation to its parent or parents

protein

the plant or animal tissue rich in such molecules, considered as a food source supplying essential amino acids to the body

recessive gene

A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state but has its expression masked in the presence of a dominant gene

species

the major subdivision of a genus or subgenus, regarded as the basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species

virus

is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell.

enzymes

any of various proteins originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digestion

glucose

a simple sugar, is a very important carbohydrate in biology. The living cell uses it as a source of energy

galactose

is a type of sugar which is less sweet than glucose. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy

lactose

is a sugar that is found most notably in milk

cholesterol

a sterol that occurs in all animal tissues, esp. in the brain, spinal cord, and adipose tissue, functioning chiefly as a protective agent in the skin and myelin sheaths of nerve cells

brain

the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter

nerve cells

a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites

tumor

abnormal growth of a mass of cells in the body

cancer

disorderly growth of cells in body tissue

carcinogens

subtances that cause cancer

veins

one of the system of branching vessels or tubes conveying blood from various parts of the body to the heart.

arteries

system of branching vessels or tubes conveying blood away from heart.

hemoglobin

the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells that gives them their red color and serves to convey oxygen to the tissues

blood

the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of human beings and other vertebrates, in humans consisting of plasma in which the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended.

plasma

the liquid part of blood or lymph, as distinguished from the suspended elements

mitosis

the usual method of cell division

classification

the assignment of organisms to groups within a system of categories distinguished by structure, origin, etc

antibodies

protein molecules produced by B cells as a primary immune defense

synthesis

the combining of the constituent elements of separate material or abstract entities into a single or unified entity

disease

a disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body resulting from the effect of genetic or developmental errors; an illness; sickness; ailment

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