"terrain with distinctive landforms and drainage arising from a greater rock solubility in natural water."
dissolution of limestone or dolomite
sinkholes formed when caverns collapse.
"stone forest", happens when most of the original surface has been worn away.
deposition of limestone, ex: stalactites and stalagmites
wearing down of earth's surface.
weakening of rock strength/decomposition of rocks.
detachment of sediment
movement of sediment
sediment coming to rest
Partially weathered rock overlying bedrock.
Role of cracks
Increase surface area, and allow weather, air and other chemicals in and out.
Clay, quartz, and oxides of aluminum and iron.
No chemical change, but rock disintegrates.
Decomposition caused by chemical alteration.
Mechanical weathering, water gets into cracks and expands causing rocks to break apart.
Mechanical weathering, as water evaporates it leaves behind salt, which crystallizes and breaks rocks apart.
Occurred 2 million years ago to 10,000 years ago, ice fluctuated and sea level dropped ~100 meters.
14,500 years ago was the maximum extent of the ice.
Caused lots of lakes and crustal deformation.
Glaciers modified the puget lowlands.
Snow left over from past seasons, which is condensed into glacial ice.
Mass of glacial ice which covers more than 50,000 km^2.
Mass of glacial ice which covers less 50,000 km^2.
Exposed peak not covered with ice/snow within a glacier.
Glacier found in mountains.
An alpine glacier that fills a valley.
Glacier which forms the scooped-out landform at the head of a valley.
Internal Deformation vs Basal Sliding
Base of glacier bulges out from under its own weight causing glacier to flow.
Loss of glacial ice.
Input of glacial ice.
Glacial "health". Positive= gain in glacial ice. Negative= loss of glacial ice.
As a glacier flows over a surface, it pulverizes it, smoothing it down.
As glacier flows over a surface, it lifts up pieces of rocks. Happens on lee side of roche mountonee, where pressure is greater, causing more subglacial melt.
Asymmetrical hill of exposed bedrock.
Valley formed by glacier eroding at bottom and sides.
Scooped out landform at the head of a valley
Where 2 cirques meet.
Where 3 or more cirques meet.
Material deposited by glacial ice.
Linear mounds of till.
Asymmetrical canoe shaped hills of till
Rocks with different lithology than the surrounding bedrock
Occurs when glaciers smooth down the rocks they slide over.
Unconsolidated material deposited on a slope.
Driving Forces of Mass Wasting
Slope, material weight, shape of slope (convex out), over steepening.
Resisting Forces against Mass Wasting
Material strength: cohesive nature, fractures, vegetation
Role of Water in Mass Wasting
Over steepens slope via erosion, generates poor pressure, adds weight.
Angle of Repose
The steepest you can pile loose, dry material. Bigger objects have bigger angles.
Fast/instantaneous, from exposed rock. Unorganized colluvial deposition.
When repeated rock falls accumulate at the bottom of a cliff and they form piles.
Where rockfall sediments are concentrated below drainages called chutes.
Somewhat rapid to slow land movement. Little to lots of water.
Created by excessive water, causing material to flow like a fluid.
Similar to mudflow, but less water.
Landslide where surface material moves along a concave surface (rotates).
Slow and dry mass movement of surface soil.
Saturated soil flowing down slope, held in place by turf.
Steep slope/long cliff that occurs from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevation.
Steps of colluvium in a land slide.
Characterized by rounded or conical mounds, at the bottom of a slide.
Debris Flow Levees
Larger debris is deposited at edge of flow in piles to form levees.
Material in Soil
Made of layers of mineral and organic materials.
Soil formation by 4 main processes: additions, losses, translocations, and transformations.
O: Leaf Litter
A: Organic rich mineral material
E: Less organic material rich, light grey.
B: Organic material free, has accumulated iron, clay or salts.
C: Unaltered, parent material, unconsolidated.
R: Unaltered bedrock.
Water flowing over earth's surface
Drainage basin where surface water converges to a single point.
Meeting of 2 or more bodies of water.
The lowest point to which a river can flow (mouth of the river).
Factors Influencing Runoff
Seasonality, total amount, and intensity of rain. Snow vs Rain. Relief of the area. Type of bedrock and soil. Vegetation coverage. Evaporation. Groundwater interactions.
Graph showing the amount of water flowing past a given place at a given time over time.
The amount of water flowing past a given place at a given time.
A cross-sectional image showing the variation of elevation along the length of a river.
The shape of the river channel. Changes can impact velocity and discharge.
Controls on Stream Velocity
Slope, channel shape, channel roughness, discharge.
Formula for Discharge
Q=WDV; W= width, D= depth, V= velocity
Dust/logs etc, that fall on surface of stream
Ions and molecules from weathering
Clay/silt particles that are in suspension and do not settle out.
Larger particles that are never truly suspended.
Faster velocity causes more erosion, slower velocity causes more deposition. The faster the stream, the larger the sediment transported.
Pools and riffles
Alternating pattern of slow moving deep areas, and fast moving shallow areas in a stream. Occurs on moderate-gradient slopes. Common on low order (small) streams.
Curving channel, occurs on low-gradient slopes, common in large rivers. Sinuosity increases as gradient decreases. Well defined banks and flood plain.
Multiple channels with mid-channel bars. Occur on low-gradient slopes with excess sediment delivery to the stream.