examples of monosaccharides
glucose and fructose
sugars always have one ______ group
if you have a carbonyl group at the end of the chain, u have _________
if u have a sugar on one of the middle carbons, u have _______
what are the covalent bonds that join larger sugars called?
disaccharide formed by joining two glucose molecules together
disaccharide formed by joining glucose and fructose together
examples of polysaccharides
glycogen, starch, cellulose
three fatty acids joined by ester linkages to one glycerol molecule
glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing alcohol like lecithin
esters of fatty acids and alcohols
three fused cyclohexane rings and one fused cyclopentane ring
examples of steroids
cholesterol in membranes, estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, bile
containe conjugated double bonds and carry six-membered c arbon rings at each end
function: chemical messengers>insulin, glucagon
function: transport of other substances>hemoglobin, carrier proteins
function: physical support>collagen
function: movement>actin, myosin
function: immune defense>immunoglobins
biological catalysts>amylase, lipase, ATPase
smallest side chain, with only a hydrogen
tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, alanine and valine
hydrophobic side chains
aspartate and glutamate
carboxylic acid side chains that are deprotonated to have a negative charge at normal body pH
lysine and arginine
basic amine groups that accept protons at normal body pH levels
serine, threonine and tyrosine
have hydroxyl grorups that can be modified with phosphate groups to regulate the activity of proteins
has a sulfhydryl group that will reat with other cysteins in a protein to crreate disulfide bridges that stabilize protein structure
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