the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
the processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
the processing of many aspects pof a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
the encoding of picture images
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the loss of memory
retention independent of conscious recollection (also called nondeclarative or procedural memory)
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory)
a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.