The literal or visual weight distribution in an artwork.
Everything radiates outward from a central point.
Two sides of a composition 'match' & appear to balance.
Two sides of a composition do not match yet they appear to balance.
emphasis and focal point
Draws the viewer's attention to one or more areas of the composition.
scale and proportion
In sculpture, scale & proportion refer to the relationship between parts of the sculpture and to the relationship the piece has to the viewer; refer to the size and shape of objects within a 2-Dimensional composition to each other
repetition and rhythm
The occurrence of same or like elements in a work; Repetition creates a path for the viewer's eye; It also sets up a rhythm of elements within the composition.
is needed to create a cohesive composition
necessary for visual interest
a detailed account, usually non-argumentative and value-free, of what is seen. Think of a description as a list or inventory of what is presented or included in the artwork. Strive for objectivity - avoiding interpretation and judgment. Describe only what is certain, leaving questionable objects and ideas for later.
a breaking up of the whole artwork into parts to find out their similarities and differences, function and organization. Note the relationships among things described above and how individual parts effect one another. How do the individual parts relate to one another or to the whole artwork?
an explanation or the meaning of the artwork is given or attempted. At this stage personal meanings and understandings related to the description and analysis undertaken above is attempted...and often this is an educated guess. It is certainly possible to find/ascertain more than one meaning. The artist's intention may or may not be relevant here (study the title or what the artist or others have written about the artwork if possible).
a judgment is made, a rank is given to the artwork in relation to other artworks of the same type (drawing to drawing; still life to still life). This is an informed judgment based on evidence gleaned from the above stages. Comparing the present artwork with a past artwork, style or historical time does not mean one needs to imitate work of the past; the past artwork only serves as a reference point or an object of accomplishment.
modeling, assemblage, casting
carving, relief (low relief, high relief)
The technique of pouring liquid material into a mold to solidify, remove, then finish to create a 3-d object.
uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way the viewer experiences a particular space.
They can be a boundary-challenge for the viewer.
involve time-based (and sometimes site-specific) performances that may involve objects, sound, film and any and all of the above.
the mineral or synthetic component that gives paint color.
the component that binds pigments. Can be natural or synthetic (animal glue, milk, egg, resins, polyrethanes, polyesters, acrylics, etc.)
used to thin down paint or to clean (water for acrylic; mineral spirits, acetone for oil paint)
the surface onto which a painting is made (wood, canvas, paper, wall)
the first layer of 'paint' on a support that provides a smooth surface and stops absorption by the support.
Gesso and rabbit skin glue
used as a ground; the first layer of 'paint' that sizes the canvas & provides a rigid support.
Pigments are combined with hot wax as a binder; an ancient technique for painting but still used today.
the modeling of forms through use of different values to simulate the effects of light and shadow.
extreme use of shading
(Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel) Pigments are combined with lime water and applied to a fresh lime plaster wall; Pigments chemically bind with the lime plaster wall--painting is permanent.
(part of fresco) the preliminary drawing for transfer to the wall (it is to scale)
(part of fresco) a way to trace cartoons to wall; perforate drawing then 'pounce' charcoal to transfer drawing.
Paint medium made by combining pigment with water and a gummy material--usually egg yolk; The effect is a fine, linear effect of color on the surface; A system used primarily until the end of the Middle Ages.
Pigments are combined with oil as the binder (and thinned with the solvent or vehicle); More versatile--a continuous tonal range is possible but dries very slowly; Can be thinned and layered to create a luminous effect of color shining from below surface.
pigments are suspended in gum Arabic; applied to dampened ; can be made more transparent than any other paint
the substance from an acacia tree. It's used in chewing gum, candy, marshmallows, printmaking, photography, & watercolor paints.
Pigments are combined with an acrylic polymer emulsion as the binder (a synthetic material); Benefits: Water-soluble & fast drying (easier to use); Came into commercial use in the 1950's.
Salon of Paris
Salon of the Refused
pre-curser to impressionism and modernity; "impression, sunrise" gave movement its name
rebuilt a beautiful, open Paris for citizens
extremely interested in color as it exists in nature; invention of tube paint allowed them to go outdoors
qualities of photographs that influenced impressionism
Asymmetrical compositions, silhouette, interest in broad landscape (distance in between camera & subject matter), elevated point of view,interest in spontaneity of scenes and action
floating world, Japanese woodblock prints; Subject matter: genre scenes, subjects from temporary events like theatre, dance, erotica, courtesans.
characteristics of impressionist paintings
Transient effects of sunlight and color, Shimmering movement of light on objects outdoors, Loose and broken brushstrokes, heavy impasto (not blended and smooth), Color often defines shadow (no more black & grey), Paint, color, and brush eventually dissolve form, The essence or impression of an object is captured."Immediate, bright, transient..."
grandfather of Impressionism
These artists, like dada artists, believe that art must emerge from daily life.....They create a loose affiliation of artists; Gage (silence), Yoko Ono (cutting of her clothes), Paik, Beuys