#7 3 factors that would influence which schemas i use to form an opinion about this person
-which script to apply
-the group of people i put them into
-perceive meaning of their traits
a gesture that has a specific meaning, for example shrugging your shoulders to say I don't know
repetitive touching movements, for example repeatedly scratching your nose
movements that emphasize speech and increase with increased intensity of emotions, for example hand motions.
facial expressions that only temporarily last for a millisecond as they flash across your face, for example a smile that quickly turns into a frown.
#8 take home
Jellison at USC, lying 200 times a day
#9 Cognitive dissonance
the state of tension that occurs when an individual holds two beliefs that are psychologically inconsistent
ways that you may be able to reduce cognitive dissonance
1. change attitude to make 2 things more compatible
2. add consonant thoughts to show that her behavior is rational
3. reduce amount of perceived choice
#9 take home
carlsmith and festinger, $1 and $20
#11 fundamental attribution error
: Our tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors.
actor observer bias
we do have the tendency to overestimate internal and underestimate external (Fundamental attribution error), but when were looking at ourselves we underestimate the internal and overestimate the external.
self serving bias
our need to feel good about everything we are connected to. We tend to take credit for our successes and attribute failures to something about the situation
reasons we make errors/biases
-Perceptual Salience: you're more likely to make attributions to whatever stands out to you.
-Cognitive misers: we don't like to use much cognitive energy so we believe an attribution comes from someone as a person rather than attributing actions to all other factors which would waste cognitive energy.
-Self-esteem: we want to feel good about ourselves; desire to have a coherent understanding of social world, need to make sense of our world.
#11 take home
jones and harris: writing on fidel castro-->thought writings were attributed to writer rather than them being told to write about it.
#12 5 different ways for strategic self presentation
-self promotion: we're competent
-ingratiation: were cool/likeable
-exemplification: morally respectable
presentation: having an excuse ready
behavior: doing something to self sabotage
#12 take home
Robert grove Basketball team or Markus and Nurius testing college students on possible selves
we tend to justify our actions when...
-when we know that our action is looked down upon
-committing to a particular view point
-facing ethical dilemma
#14 possible selves
the concept of possible selves is the representation of ourselves that include our goals, hopes, dreams, fears, and threats.
Linville's self-complexity theory
how we represent ourselves in terms of multiple selves or multiple schemas. the more schemas we have of ourselves, will be able to deal better when receiving criticism about one self-schema then someone with only 2 self-schemas
Markus and Nurius testing 210 college students about possible selves.
designed to clarify the relations among things. looks at linear relationships between 2 variables.
advantages of correlational research
-use it as the first step
-can use it when manipulation is impossible or unethical
-examines relationships as they unfold naturally
It's a type of research in which the investigator manipulates some variables, keeps others constant and measures the effects on randomly assigned participants.
the extent to which the independent variable manipulates what its supposed to
can generalize the results into the real world
our knowledge about situations. they specify different roles of different actors in the situation
our tendency to seek, interrupt, and create info that verifies our existing beliefs. even if they do something different to sway our belief about them, it wont change your mind
confirmatory hypothesis testing
actively seeking out info that confirms what we already believe.
self fulfilling prophecies
your expectations influence your own behavior which influences anothers behavior so that your original expectations are fulfilled.
cognitive exaggeration to the degree to which 2 stimuli or events go together; ex: seeing a black cat means bad luck, making a wish that comes true.