Explain the contributions of Taylor to the theory of scientific management.
*Time study- how long is a fair day's work and setting a standard work day (pay would + or - if more or less than standard; payment completely dependent on production)
1. 75% science and 25% common sense
2. breaks increase productivity
3. use systematic study to the find the best way of doing each task
4. scientifically select, train, teach, and develop workers to help them reach their full potential
5. cooperate with employees to ensure implementation of the scientific principles
6. divide the work and responsibility equally between management and workers
7 developing standardized approaches and tools
Explain the contributions of the Gilbreths to the theory of scientific management.
* Motion study - breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive ( Bricklaying or Surgery)
1. work place safety + for handicapped people (because after WWI)
Compare bureaucratic and administrative management.
Bureaucratic- to prevent favoritism, it's about following the rules for efficiency, fairness, and effectiveness
BUT: it's too resistant to change and slow to respond to customers and competitors
Administrative-the five management functions of leading, planning, organizing, commanding, and coordinating, and controlling
Explain the principles of Mary Parker Follett's human resource management.
* constructive conflict
3. integrative conflict resolution- where neither has to sacrifice anything but find an alternative that meets the needs of both
Four fundamental principles: (of working together)
1. coordination affects all factors related in the business
2. coordination by direct contact of the responsible people concerned
3. coordination in the early stages
4. coordination as a continuing process
What lessons did we learn from the Hawthorne studies? Summarize Bernard's contributions on cooperation and acceptance of authority.
Hawthorne- it's the human condition (group effort and happier environments) were more effective on increasing productivity than physical
Bernard-Importance of clearly establishing an organization's purpose and objectives so that personal ones don't get in the way
2. need system of communications
3.it's more effective to induce their willing cooperation through incentives, clearly formulated organizational objectives, and effective communication throughout the organization
Discuss the contributions of Whitney and Monge to operations management.
Whitney- interchangeable parts (with guns)
Monge- used geometry to make accurate maps and 3-D figures as prototypes for production
Fire- caused just-in time inventory to be invented
How do companies use systems management to make sense of organizational and environmental complexity?
view an organization a system of subsystems: set of interrelated parts that function as a whole
1. closed systems= function without interacting with their environments but all organizations should be viewed as open systems
2. successful interaction with organizational environments is critical because open systems tend toward entropy ( which is the inevitable and steady deterioration of a system)
Identify the major milestones in the history of managing information.
1. paper and printing press
2. file cabinets