American History Chapter 9
|What was the foremost desire of the American people when choosing a president in 1920?||the American people wanted normalcy|
|How did the candidate elected fulfill those wishes?||His campagin was for normalcy and he had a casual approach to government|
|Why is Harding's administration seen as the most corrupt in American History?||- Members of lower-level government posts were taking bribes from bootleggers.|
- Ohio Gang: some members were Harding's old friends from Ohio. They are responsible for much of the corruption.
- The Teapot Dome Scandal: Fall accepted bribes from oil companies to drill federal oil companies on a piece of federal land (teapot dome, Wyoming) then was sent to jail.
|How will Coolidge's administration be perceived by the American people? Why?|| - He is one of the most honest Presidents. Fires many people that Harding had placed in office.|
- Elected to Presidency at the 1924 election
|What policy did both Harding and Coolidge have in common?||- They both supported business. Neither of them grasp the problems of the agriculture business.|
|What problems arising from World War I will be addressed and how by Harding and Coolidge?||- The fighting on the battlefields of World War I ended in 1918, yet the war's effects on national and international politics endured throughout a whole generation and several presidencies. The fight over Wilson's peace plans and the League of Nations consumed the final years of Wilson's presidency|
- Harding tries to help farmers by raising the taxes but it didn't help because it hurt the European countries economy.
- League of Nations was something that was a problem for the U.S. Disarmament - Harding calls nations to meet in Washington for the Washington Naval Conference. It was to try and reduce the number of weapons of different types in the entire world.
○ Coolidge attends the conference after Harding's death
|Warren G. Harding||- Twelfth president of the United States; his policies favored business, but his administration was known for scandals.|
|Calvin Coolidge||- Thirtieth president of the United States; he became president upon the death of President Warren G. Harding. He was known for his honesty and his pro-business policies.|
|Reparation||- payments designed to make up for the damage of the war.|
|arms race||- a struggle in which competing nations build more and more weapons in an effort to avoid one nation gaining a clear advantage|
|Charles Evan Hughes|| - American politician who served as secretary of state and participated in the Washington Naval Conference.|
- He served as a justice on the Supreme Court.
|Kellogg-Briand Pact|| - a treaty signed in 1928 that rejected war as a means to solving problems between countries .|
- More than 60 Countries signed it
- Worthless piece of paper; nothing in it enforces the agreement.
|Washington Naval Conference||1921-1922|
President Harding at the request of the Congress called a conference of the world's naval powers to limit the number of warships any nation might posses and to reduce each nations navy to that agreed upon limit. This conference led to the signing of multiple treaties ( 4,5, and 9 power treaties) between the meeting nations. This conference was aimed not only at a reduction in armaments but also a reduction in the amount of money these countries had to spend on the production of arms
|Four-Power Treaty||- This treaty between the U.S., Britain, France, and Japan was an agreement that each of these nations would respect each other's right over pacific island possessions.|
|Five-Power Treaty|| - This treaty between the U.S., Britain, Japan, France, and Italy would freeze the navies of each country at the 1921 levels and halt the building of large warships for 10 years.|
□ Didn't stop the building of submarines which will eventually lead to an attack on America by China and World War II
|Nine-Power Treaty||- This treaty between the U.S., Britain, Japan, France, Italy, Belgium, China, the Netherlands, and Portugal would guarantee China's independence and territorial integrity and restate the Open Door Policy|
|Albert Fall||- Secretary of the Interior under President Harding would be arrested, tried and convicted of bribery for illegally leaving federal oil reserve lands to private investors for development (Teapot Dome)|
|Teapot Dome Scandal|| 1921|
- Secretary of Interior Albert Fall would be convicted of taking bribes for secretly leasing the navy's oil reserve areas at Teapot dome, WY and Elk Hills Calf.
|National Origins Act||1924 This law set the number of immigrants that were allowed to immigrate to the U.S. and stated that after 1927 only 150,00 immigrants would be admitted to the U.S. per year|
|Fordney-McCumber Tariff|| (1921-23) |
This bill raised tariffs to a new high on most agricultural products as well as certain industrial goods and gave the President the right to raise or lower tariffs by Presidential order
|Emergency Quota Act:||- This law cut the number of people admitted into the United States based on the number of people of that national origin already living in the U.S. before 1910|
|McNary- Haugen Bill:||- This legislation was aimed at dealing with farmers surplus crops which were a huge problem at the time. The surpluses depressed farm prices. This bill called for government to put the surpluses on the world market for other nations to buy thus bringing farm prices back up to an acceptable level. Though it passed both houses of Congress it was vetoed by President Coolidge.|
|Why do you think so many voters were drawn to Harding's message of normalcy and a return to values of the past?||- Because after how hectic and stressful wartime and the Red Scare was the people wanted things to return to normal and get back to their normal routine and way of life.|
|Why is Calvin Coolidge known as "Silent Cal"?|| - Because although he played practical jokes on the white house staff he wasn't a man of many words. |
- Didn't like small talk
|How did Coolidge's policies compare to those of Harding?|| - Harding's administration was very corrupt whereas Coolidge was very honest and got rid of the corruption|
- They both supported business. Neither of them grasp the problems of the agriculture business.
|Who do you think would have had a more positive impression of Coolidge: a farmer or a business owner? Explain.||- Business owner, because of how little he did for farmers during his presidency. He had a pro-business attitude and didn't grasp the problems of the agricultural business|
|Why do you think the United States signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact but did not join the League of Nations?||- Because the Kellogg- Briand Pact didn't have any sanctions and didn't enforce the agreement whereas the League of Nations was more serious and had more power over them.|
|Henry Ford: (1863-1947)||- American business leader; he revolutionized factory production through use of the assembly line and popularized the affordable automobile.|
- At the time cars where something only the wealthiest people could own, Henry Ford stated that his automobile would be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one.
|Assembly Line||- a mass-production process in which a product moved forward through many work stations, where workers performed specific tasks |
- item being built moves along a conveyor belt to various workstations.
○ Ford began by making his cars identical and simple
○ he studied manufacturing processes
○ Then he hired a scientific management expert (Frederick Winslow Taylor) to determine how workers should move, and at what speed, to be most productive.
|Productivity||- the amount of product made by a worker or machine|
|Welfare Capitalism||- a system in which companies provide benefits to employees in an effort to promote worker satisfaction and loyalty. |
- many companies offered company-paid pensions
○ payments made to workers when they retire.
- Others set up recreation programs for workers.
- In return, business owners hoped that welfare capitalism would encourage workers to shun unions and acceptt lower pay
|Suburbs:|| the smaller towns located outside urban areas. |
Created for space
|Installment Buying:|| - paying for an item over time in small payments. |
- Set up todays credit-card society
|Credit||system of borrowing money from banks to make purchases, then paying it back later with interest|
|What was the Red Scare||- The Red Scare was a period of time after world war I when people were frightened by the threat of communism.|
|How did the Red Scare come about||- because of the rise of the Bolsheviks in Russia and their wish to make the entire world communist and to overthrow capitalism in a violent way|
|what were the Palmer Raids||- They were a series of attacks taken out on radical suspects.|
- These raids called for aliens suspected of communism to be deported to other countries.
- Lead by A. Mitchell Palmer, the Attorney General
○ target for a previous bomb threat by radicals
- Attempt to eliminate immigrants who were not supporters of American democracy
- Palmer was very successful in his raids and had support from most Americans.
|Why was the loyalty of union members and unions themselves questioned?||- Because of communisms call for workers to unite and rise up against the government.|
- These suspicions were furthered by the numerous strikes being put on at the time due to working conditions
○ which had declined after the war because of the lose of demand for supplies and the decrease in the economy .
- Many people linked Labor workers and radicals together
|Who were Sacco and Vanzetti and why were they important?||- Two Italian men convicted of armed Robbery and Murder and executed. Because of lack of evidence they were believed to have only been found guilty because they openly proclaimed they were Italian anarchist. |
○ Radicals who wished to overthrow the government
- Examples used to show that your political views can impact you.