What is normal blood pressure for early pregnancy?
Where can ectopic pregnancies occur?
Ovary, fallopian tube, cervix.
What is a hydatidiform mole?
Benign placental neoplasm.
What are placental hormones?
hCG, hPL (human placental lactogen), estrogen, and progesterone.
What hormone relaxes the uterus?
What does hCG do?
Stimulates early corpus leuteum to make progesterone.
What does hPL do?
Inhibits sensitivity to insulin.
What does gestational diabetes cause?
Hyperglycemia of fetus.
What causes nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy?
What happens to TH levels in pregnancy?
Increase in TH levels, but corresponding increase in TBG, so free T4 stays the same.
Are pregnany women anemic?
Greater expansion of blood volume (40-50%) than RBC count cause low Hb/Hct and a decrease in blood pressure because placental circulation is low-resistance.
Does pregnancy cause constipation or diarrhea?
Constipation due to progesterone, which makes it easier to eat small meals.
Does pregnancy constrict or dilate ureters?
Dilate, leading to increased risk of UTI.
Does pituitary expand or contract in pregnancy?
Expand, due mostly to APH: prolactin, corticotropin, thyrotropin, GH.
At 14 weeks, how high should the fundus be above the pubic symphysis?
At 20 weeks, how high should the fundus be above the pubic symphysis?
When does "quickening" often occur?
When is gestational diabetes tested?
Is fasting necessary for gestational diabetes check?
No, it's done after glucose load.
What is a "normal" glucose load in glucose tolerance test?
140 mg/dL, as arbitrary cutoff.
How is gestational diabetes treated?
Dietary changes, multiple small meals, insulin.
What is considered normal weight gain?
25 if normal weight, less if overweight, more if underweight.
Why should women late in pregnancy sleep on the side?
So as not to compress IVC.
What are Leopold's maneuvers?
Abdominal palpation to ascertain the position of the fetus.
What are the three stages of labor?
(1) onset of labor contractions to full cervix dilation,
(2) full cervix dilation to delivery of baby,
(3) delivery of baby to delivery of placenta.
What is normal fetal heart rate?
What happens to cervix during delivery?
(1) Pulls up out of vagina vestibule,
(2) Gets effaced so that less cervix extends below internal os,
(3) Widens to ~10 cm.
What can be used to measure how close to term a baby is?
Estrogen/progesterone ratio, because progesterone decreases uterine contractility, while estrogen increases.
What hormone softens cervix?
What hormones causes contractions?
Oxytocin and prostaglandins.
What is placental blood flow at delivery?
What is normal delivery blood loss?
500 mL, mother has increased volume several times that during pregnancy.
What percentage of women with mastitis will develop abscesses?
What is the usual source of mastitis after pregnancy?
Staphylococcus or Streptococcus from the nursing baby.