History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond Chapter 22

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Chapter 22 Study Notes

What was the name of the warrior class in Japan that rose to become powerful warriors?

Samurai

What government marked the beginning of a new era in Japan's history?

Kamakura government

How long did the era of the samurai last before the emperor was restored to power in 1868?

700 years

What were the Samurai famed for?

Courage and skill

The samurai had elaborate culture and a code of conduct and were expected to be what?

Honest, brave and intensly loyal to their lord

What does the word samurai mean?

"Those who serve"

Would a samurai kill themselves with their own sword rather than to lose face or personal honor?

Yes

Who led the military government established by Minamoto Yoritomo?

A Shogun: who is the commander-in-chief

True/False: The emperors continued to rule in name, the real power shifted to the shoguns.

True

What did the samurai pledged in return for being appointed offices and grants of land as rewards?

The samurai pledged to serve and protect the shogun

What were the samurai trained in?

Arts of war, especially archery

Could women become a samurai?

Yes

During what century did the Japanese warrior society resemble the lord-vassal system?

14th Century

Who helped the shogun rule?

Daimyos, the warrior-lords

What did the daimyos expect to be rewarded for their obedience and loyalty to the shogun?

Land, money or administrative offices

Did the position of the shogun weakened as the daimyos became more powerful?

Yes

When did Japan fall into chaos?

15th Century

Did the Daimyos war with one another for land and power?

Yes

How long was the bloody warfare did it take for skilled generals to defeat their rival daimyos?

A century (100 years)

In 1603, what last shogun established a new capital in Edo (present-day Tokyo)?

Tokugawa Ieyasu

How long was Japan at peace after the resestablished government in 1603?

250 years

What did the samurai wear under his armor?

A colorful robe called a KIMONO, baggy trousers and shinguards

Was the armour the samurai wore strong and flexible enough to allow the him to move freely?

Yes

Did the samurai wear a ferocious looking iron mask to frighten his opponents and protection?

Yes

Why did the samuari burn incense in his helmet?

His head would smell sweet if it were cut off in battle

What did the samurai fight with in battle?

8 foot wooden Bows, arrows, spears and swords.

What was the samurai's most prized weapon?

Sword

The samurai carried 2 types of swords what were they and how were they used?

Long sword with a curved blade was used for fighting and a shorter sword was used for cutting off heads

What was a priviledge and a right of the samurai?

Wearing a sword

Did the samurai proudly wear their swords as a sign of their rank during the 17th century?

Yes

How did the first samurai train and fight?

"The Way of the Horse and the Bow"

During military training what skills were the samurai required to extensively train in?

Archery masters, art of fencing or swordsmanship, and martial arts

Archery masters taught the samurai what?

Taught them mental and physical techniques that allowed the samuarai to shoot accurately without thinking

What did the samurai have to learn while being taught the art of fencing?

How to force an enemy to make the first move, stay out of range of enemy sword and to fight in tight spaces

During battle what would a samurai do if he lost or break his sword?

The samurai would use martial arts or continue to fight by using other objects as weapons

Did the samurai have a unique style of battle?

Yes

What did the samurai do when there was a battle?

Messengers met to decide the time and place of combat, two armies faced each other, shouted and then fought after finding an opponent of the same rank.

When the two opposing armies faced each other what would they shout?

The samurai would shout their names, ancestors, heroic deeds and reason for fighting

What did the samurai do after winning the battle?

Cut off the heads of the opponents, clean them, mount the heads on boards to present for inspection as proof

What were the samurai's rewarded with after the ceremony of showing the warlord the heads?

Swords, horses, armor or land

What training was included in the samurai's education in the art of war?

Mental training

What did mental training include?

Learning self-control and to always be alert and prepared to fight

What did training in Self-control include?

Learning how to endure pain and suffering, overcome the fear of death

What did training in Preparedness include?

Samurai could never relax, had to develop a 'sixth sense' about danger

During the peacefull 17th century what were the samurai expected to be students of also?

Students of culture which included writing and literature

What did the samurai practice while studying culture?

Wrote in calligraphy (beautiful writing), wrote poetry by writing in haiku (short poems)

What other aspect of cultural training did the samurai study?

Tea Ceremony

What did the Tea Ceremony foster?

A spirit of harmony, reverence and calm. It also served as a way to form political alliances among samurai

What two forms of Buddhism did the samurai follow?

Amida and Zen

During the 12th centruy what monk founded Amida Buddhism

Honen

What did the Amida Buddhist believe?

They believed that all people could reach paradise by relying on the mercy of Amida Budda

Who was Amida?

Amida had been an Indian prince who had set up a western paradise called the Pure Land

How did Honen say that believers could enter the Pure Land?

By prayerfully repeating Amida's namve over 70,000 times a day and when they died Amida and bodhisattvas would escort them into the Pure Land

What did Honen's disciple Shinran do?

He taught that believers could reach the western paradise by sincerely saying Amida's name only once

Why did Zen Buddhism appeal to many samurai?

It emphasis on effort and discipline and stressed self-reliance and achieving elightenment through meditation

How did Zen Buddhists reach enlightenment?

Zen Buddhist meditated for hours, sitting erect and cross-legged without moving, giving up everyday, logical thinking

What would masters do to jolt the mind into enlightenment?

Masters posed puzzling questions called Koans.

What was the most popular Koans?

"What is the sound of one hand clapping?

What did rock gardens symbolize?

Symbolized nature. Rocks in sand might represent islands in the sea

Why was Zen Buddhism a good match for the samurai way of life?

It helped samurai learn discipline, focus their minds, and overcome their fear of death

During the 17th century what was the Code of Bushido?

"The Way of the Warrior", the code governed a samurai's life and called on the samurai to be honest, fair, and fearless in the face of death

What was the samurai's supreme duty?

To be so loyal to his lord that he would die for him. They also were expected to guard their personal honor

What was a ritual suicide called?

Seppuku, which is the price to be paid for failing to live up to the code of Bushido

Did Seppuku become an elaborate ceremony?

Yes

Were the 17th century the samurai women were treated as inferior to their husbands?

Yes

Were the 12th century samurai women treated with considerable status?

Yes

What women took part in battles alongside men?

Tomoe Gozen

What did the samurai woman, Koman, do?

She saved her clan's banner by swimmng to shore under a shower of arrows with the banner in her teeth

During the 17th century who were the women expected to obey?

When young, obey their fathers, when grown obey their husbands, when old obey their sons

What did Tomoe Gozen do in battle?

She killed several enemies in battle and killed the enemy leader by cutting off his head

How were Japan and Europe Middle ages alike?

Ties of loyalty and obligation bound lords and vassals. Both had rulers who rose to power as military chiefs.

Why were the daimyos of Japan were like the landholding lords of Europe?

Because foth types of lords built casteles and held estates that were worked by peasants

How did the military leaders rule in Europe and in Japan?

In Europe, a military leader, William the Conqueror ruled as king, In Japan, the shogun ruled in the name of the emperor

What were the codes for the Europeans and Japanes?

The Europeans had a code of chivarly and the Japanese had the code of Bushido

When did the Japanese warrior society last until?

1868

What caused the power to be restored to the emperor?

Political upheavals

During World War II did the Japanese who fought stay true to the warrior code?

Yes

What were Kamikazes?

Suicide pilots who crashed their planes into enemy battleships.

What did Kamikaze stand for?

Divine winds

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