Hundred Years War ends: The number of nobles decreases with The Hundred Years War and their power decimated leaving middle class to take over as the royal council.
Controlled by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile after they married in 1469. The new monarchy of Spain dealt greatly with the re-conquest of Spain from the Muslims.
After The War of the Roses, The Tudor Dynasty took power. Henry VII made many changes such as replacing the nobles and taking complete control of the church.
assembly of the estates of all France
Nobles and their estates
Kings kept nobles from gathering in order to converse with each other about the king and other middle class replace the nobles.
the entire amount of income before any deductions are made
Law and administration
The New Monarchies kept the parliament away and hired national civil servants.
refer to the white chart.
refer to the white chart
England-HenryVII/Henry VIII (Tudor Family)
gained power, was the first of Tudor dynasty, calmed English war through marriage.
France-Charles VIII, Louis XI, (Valois family)
ended his reign with twice the land he started with.
Spain Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles I
Spain became a superpower of Europe through their access to the New World and the inheritance of Charles I. Ferdiand and Isabella marriage combined Spain.
The Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg Supremacy
group of many cities, united by an electoral emperor
Golden Bull of 1356
This was an edict by Charles IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, specifying the process of how Holy Roman Emperors were to be elected by German princes. It took some power from the Pope and codified the process in a definite way.
Also called Electoral Prince, they were second in the kingdom only to the emperor or king.
Reichstag and Diets
German Parliament existed in different forms until 1945
Maximilian I, Charles V aka Charles I of Spain
Max was the emperor of HRE, his son, Charles V, married a Spanish princess and became Charles I of Spain.
Towns and Trade
Trade rich towns became powerful city states
Humanism, now it was okay for individuals to show what they could do and earn money. Dignity.
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
Role of slavery in Ren.
Big part of Ren. Since of the Black Plague, laborers were low. The slaves Muslims, spoils of war from Spain, sold to Italians.
methods of critical thinking which dominated the academics of medieval Unv. WRITE CLEARLY ARGUE EFFECTIVELY AND SPEAK PERSUASIVELY
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason. If you want to do something, if you have the determination to go for it, a farmer could be anyone he wants to be.
humanism with the added belief that one must be an active and contributing member to one's society
He revived antiquity. Stressed concepts of individualism, secularism. Credited Italians with the birth of Renaissance.
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no latin.
Recorded history of Florence. Italian humanist considered to be one of the first modern historians.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446) Designed O'Dromo
Italian painter of mythological and religious paintings (1444-1510) Drew Prima Vera
Christin de Pizan
First published women
She used her wealth, intelligence, and power to support artists and scholars in Florence, Italy. Her palace was one of the most brilliant of the Renaissance.
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
School of Athens (1483-1520)
Sistine Chapel, Stature of David, (1475-1564)
Lenoardo Da Vinci
(1452-1519)Vitruvian Man in 1490 Mona lisa in 1515.
Powerful city states of Italy
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)
Took over the medici family in florence. Radical thinker. Led the bonfire of vanities, burning of material goods. He also talked the french outta attacking florence.
Try to bridge the gap between humanism and Christianity
Wrote Utopia, (socialism)
treaty of tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
the Columbian exchange
enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, food, human population, diseases and ideas; one of the most significant events in the history of world ecology, agriculture and culture between America, Asia, Europe, and Africa.
English and French explorations
french to canada. england to jamestown.
The Portuguese Empire
first global empire in history. In addition, it was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999.
Prince Henry the navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)
Travelled from Portugal to the southern tip of Africa by sea in 1488 in hopes of finding a water route to Asia.
india and the spice islands
set up trading posts in India, Portugal tried to control spice trade. $ of spice decreased, and consumption of spice increased.
the Spanish empire 15th century
consisted of the territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. It originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires. At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power. iIt lasted from the 15th century through
rediscovered in 1406-greek cartographer; believed earth was smaller than it is (no Americas) and a sphere.
A map made in 1492, suggests Asia is across Atlantic
Famous explorer who believed he can find a water route to the Indies end up new world in 1492
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521).
Florentine navigator who explored the coast of South America. america named after him, 1454-1512
bartolome de las casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
plantation owned by the Spanish settlers or the catholic Church in Spanish America
role of slavery in atlantic world
african were traded to americas, exchanged for sugar, sugar sent back to europe.
Came from ancient Greece and Roman that introduced up new political and scientific thoughts. For example, public education, rights of citizens, legal systems.
Include literature, theater and architecture (road building, bridges, aqueducts) from Greece and Rome
A disease brought over by fleas on rats to Europe and the illness spread, with economic and social consequences.
Hundred Years War
A war between France and England over power.
The French King forced Clement V to move from Italy to Avignon, which damaged the papal power
Involved internal conflict between cardinals and the pope
Translated the Bible from Latin into English causing protesting.
Translated the Bible into Czech.
The author of the Divine Comedy which describes the soul's journey towards God.
Wrote literature that was able to spread ideas.
Giovanni Boccaccio: Decameron
Book set at time of Black Death;tells of 10 young people who flee to escape the plague and decide to tell stories; reflects cynical postplague values
Towns and trade
Most came from Venice and Florence during the Renaissance
Encouraged during the Renaissance and choosing one's own destiny (humanism)
Popes who focused more on political and military powers rather than religious powers (Pope Julius II)
Slavery in the Renaissance
Much more popular and were imported from Africa, Cyprus, Greece and the Balkans after the Black Death
Encouraged men and women of the Renaissance to reason through knowledge and inference
The belief that people could change their own destiny and the education promoting individual virtue and public service
Said, in "Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy", that the revival of ancient learning in 14th/15th century gave Italy rise to new values
The "Father of Humanism" used poetry and letters to encourage humanism and the blend of classical and christian values
Wrote History of Florence, connecting the decline of republic to the decline of Latin
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Suggested that men could choose their destiny, there were no limits and that perfection was the goal
Author of "The Courtier", which outlined courtly manners and expectations for men and women and set the standard for elite groups
One of the first architects of the Renaissance and designed Duomo
A painter from Florence and belonged to a Florentine school under Medici during the early Rennaissance
Christine de Pisan
Thought of as the first feminist and wrote "The Treasure of the City Ladies" which instructed women on how to survive the Renaissance
A major cultural leader for women during the Renaissance
Portrayed the world around literally and naturally
A man of kindness and a sensitive painter, artist of many frescoes and Madonnas
His works are seen all over Italy in chapels and other places in Italy, and is known for his skill and originality
Leonardo da Vinci
His work is famous for its logic, inventiveness, and skill and he had theories for modern things that we use everyday (airplane)
Controlled by the wealthy Medici Family, which turned out 3 popes but claimed to be a republic
Was a commercial leader in trade and had a lot of the wealth within Italy, therefore the merchants held much of the power
Considered to be a republic but was controlled by the Viscounti, then the Sforza
Kingdom of Naples
Ruled by a feudal Spanish monarch and did not play a large role in the Renaissance
The Papal States
Ruled by the papacy (popes Alexander VI, Julius II, Leo X, and Clement VII)
Author of "The Prince", a book about his beliefs about the best way to rule (with fear, brutality, and fraud)
A leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance
A priest who preached that the Medicis were corrupt in Florence and burned goods, "Bonfires of Vanities"
Taught well-to-do youths, was the most famous northern humanist, and tried to unite humanity's ideas and Christian ideas of love
English humanist, wrote Utopia which describes a perfect community