A French philosopher who wrote The Positive Philosophy who thought that out of the 3 stages of human thought (theological- nature from divinities, metaphysical-abstract things operated nature, positive stage-nature is exact descriptions of phenomena) society had reached the positive stage. Considered father of sociology.
Human intellectual development that cumulated in science, in other words, natural sciences are the sole source of knowledge. Founded by Auguste Comte.
Considered the "Newton of biology", introduced the principles of natural selection and explained how evolution could occur. He promoted the idea of evolution through natural selection.
On the Origin of Species
By Charles Darwin, talked about the mechanical interpretation of physical nature into the living world. Everything in nature is mechanical.
Descent of Man
By Charles Darwin, promoted evolution by natural selection. Revolutionary, controversial book.
An interpretation of how species changed or evolved over time. There are more species than can survive so the ones with moderate advantages survive. "Survival of the fittest", the advantages are just chance variations.
Austrian monk who worked with idea of hereditary. Only until after he got public attention did this new idea of chance variations become considered.
British philosopher who was an advocate of evolutionary ethics. He thought society made progress by having competition and there would always be a struggle with fellow humans.
Evolutionary ethics, "might makes right", survival of the fittest. A certain type of people is the best and there's nothing you can do about it.
Thomas Henry Huxley
British, tried to gain government support for science and research in schools and universities, kind of a big deal since this was the first push for scientific funding.
German physicist who produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range (x-rays).
One of the first really successful scientists, changing the way scientists were looked at. He believed that time and space didn't exist separately, but were in a combined continuum. Time and space measurement depended on the observer AND the entities being measured.
Theory of Relativity
Proposed by Einstein, he recognized that the speed of light was constant, nothing travels faster than light. The equation E=MC2 was derived from it.
German theoretical physicist, contributed to quantum mechanics, quantum theory, and nuclear physics. Best know for the uncertainty principle.
Certain pairs of physical properties (position and momentum) cannot be simultaneously known to arbitrarily high precision, always some uncertainty.
Groundbreaking psychologist, believed that all mental problems were results of sexual abuse as a child/infantile sexuality (early beliefs) later thought it had to do with suppressed desires. Thought religion was an illusion, beliefs came more from enlightenment. Revolutionary with his "talking cure", patients would talk about there problems and it would help them overcome their issues.
Interpretation of Dreams
By Freud, he believed that dreams were reasonable, scientific explanations. Dreams were the unconscious wishes, desires and drives of people.
id, ego, superego
Feud's belief about the parts of the human thought/mind: Id-amoral, irrational, physical/sexual pleasure, Superego-Stresses the morals and expectations of society, Ego-Mediates between the two.
A promising, favorite student of Freud's but he disagreed with the Freudian emphasis on sexual trauma as the basis for all neurosis. Since they disagreed, Freud soon dismissed him because he wanted only very loyal students. More of a romantic/romanticism thinker.
The unconscious part of the mind that collects and organizes personal experiences (which are in the personal unconscious) in a similar way with each member of a particular species.
The Life of Jesus
1835, by David Strauss. Questioned whether the Bible provided any real historical evidence of Jesus. Said that Jesus's story was a myth, doubting miracles and striking at religion.
Charles Lyell (geology)
1797-1875. Suggested that the earth is much older than the biblical records said. He removed God from the physical creation of the earth, which supported Darwin's theory. Very controversial, attacked religion.
(1844-1900) German philosopher who believed that will to power is the most important instinct. Thought that a superman, or Übermensch, would create new ethical values/morals to dominate the masses. Thought that Christianity was for the weak in order to keep the strong from dominating them. Famous quote: "God is dead".
Thus Spake Zarathustra
By Nietzsche in 1883. He criticized democracy and Christianity, saying that both would lead to the mediocrity of sheepish masses. Introduced the idea of the Ubermensch, and sought a return to the heroism associated with Greek life in the Homeric age.
The superman that Nietzsche believed would enforce new ethical values/morals to control the masses.
Beyond Good and Evil
By Nietzsche in 1886. He wanted to discover the social and psychological sources of the judgment of good and evil, not what is good and what is evil.
Pope Pius IX
Wrote Syllabus of Errors in 1864, attacking nationalism, science, the isms, etc. and wanted people to return to faith.
Pope Leo XIII Rerum Novarum
Affirmed private property, but criticized capitalism's poverty and insecurity. Said socialism was evil but often right, and supported the creation of Christian socialist parties.
German sociologist who thought that the emergence of rationalism was a major development for society. Thought people would people got worth from positions in their organizations.
The division of labor since each individual fit into a particular role in much larger organizations.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
By Weber, he said that a lot of rational character of capitalist enterprise comes from frugal religious doctrines of Puritanism.
Social scientist who differed from Weber's beliefs. Emphasized the role of collective groups in politics instead of just individual decisions. People function in society and have certain behaviors because of social reasons.
Reflections on Violence
By Sorel, he said that people don't pursue rationally perceived goals but are led to them and led to action by collectively shared ideals.
Arthur de Gobineau
French Diplomat, kind of a racist guy who believed in the superiority of the Aryan race (Hitler....?) Said that race was a major determinant of human history and how society functioned.
Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
By Gobineau, he said that the problems in Western civilization were because of the long degeneration of the original Aryan race. Mixed marriages diluted the greatness of the race (uh... awks...)
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Englishman, lived in Germany, anti-semitic (big surprise), first to consider manufacturing a perfect race, considered Jews a major enemy of European racial regeneration/a hindrance to creating a perfect race.
Foundations of the 19th Century
By Chamberlain, started the concept of biological determinism through race. With genetics, the human race could be improved and a superior race could be developed.
Believed that the only way Jews would be happy was if they were living in a separate, Jewish state. He directed his work to the poor Jews who lived in the ghettos of Europe.
A movement to found a separate Jewish state in order to escape persecution and racism and to be finally prosperous and happy. Theodor Herzl was the founder.
Economics-these places had natural resources, geopolitics-certain areas had geography that would help a country, nationalism-prove their country is the best, media-the media promoted imperialism, and White Man's Burden-non-white people can't govern themselves, so the white men must civilize them.
Transportation-the steam engine and metal hulls, communication-the telegraph, weapons-breech loaders and machine guns, and medicine.
Overproduction led to market search. "Imperialism is the monopoly state of captitalism". Competition leads to monopoly.
A mix of national prestige and social Darwinism. It's a competition-don't get left out of the race. A country had to prove that they were fittest-over the natives and against other countries.
Patriotic chauvinism. You can prove your country's dominance by aggressive foreign policy.
White man's burden
"Non-white savages" must be civilized and Christianized. The whites believed it was their job. Very racist and Darwinian-one race is better/fitter than the others.
The East India Company ruled parts of India in the 18th century, but control was taken from it after the Sepoy Revolt 1857-8. After 1861 British officials and soldiers ruled with native help. In 1876 Disraeli made Victoria "Emperor of India".
British East India Company
Ruled parts of India in the 18th century, but lost control during the Sepoy Revolt.
In 1857, the sepoys, Indians who were trained as soldiers by the British, heard rumors that their rifle cartridges were greased with lard and beef fat. Since the cow is sacred to Hindus, and the pig is hated by Muslims, the sepoys were outraged. They revolted, but the revolt was harshly crushed by the British.
Triangular trade with China and Britain
British manafactures to India, bullion, Indian textiles and opium to China, and Chinese silk and tea to Britain.
(1839-42) From 1729 to 1838, the amount of chests of opium exported to China increased from 200 to 40,000. In 1835 there were about 12 million addicted Chinese. Their government was worried about the social costs of opium and enforced laws to destroy it. Britain went to war to open trade and pretty much forced the Chinese to take opium. Ended in Treaty of Nanking.
Treaty of Nanking
The 1st unfair trade agreement. Britain got trade, opium and extraterritoriality (if you get in trouble in a different country, you get tried in your own country).
Sphere of influence
After 5 more Euro-China wars in 1842-1895 followed by unfair treaties, each European power got a sphere of influence in China-treaty ports.
(1899-1901) The Chinese Society of Harmonious Fists was a martial arts group who fought back against the foreigners and Christians. Famous quote: "Death to the foreign devils!" They were crushed by an international force of about 20,000.
Leopold tried to stop the slave trade and make a profit in the Congo 1879-1882. He got the Congo after the Berlin Conference.
Berlin Conference of 1884
Leopold got the Congo, rules for occupation were set up. Nations had to have "effective occupation" to promote "economic development".
The Boers and Britisth had been fighting over S. Africa since the Britisth gained a foothold in 1815. After the British bothered the Boers about slavery, the Boers migrated away (Great Trek 1837-44) and formed separate nations. They discovered diamonds and gold in their nations 1844, so Cecil Rhodes, a British guy, attempted to overthrow their government to gain access to the riches with the Jameson Raid in 1896. However, the Boers won, and to make matters worse, Wilhelm II sent the Kruger Telegram to the Boers saying congratulations for beating the British. The War started in 1899 (-1902), with guerilla warfare-the Boers used farms to hide and get food, etc., but the British realized this and clustered the Boer farmers in concentration camps. It was whites v. whites, and was unpopular in Europe. While the British won, they allowed the Boers to continue racist policies and help rule.
After the war in the Balkans, alliances collapsed, land division was off. Mostly everyone was against Russia. Bismarck made strategic alliances with Russia and Austria separately to lower tensions and have a back up if necessary.
Tensions high in the Balkans as there was a lot of rebellion going on from independent ethnicities and it was freed from the Ottoman Empire in the end by Russia.
Revolving around the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, meaning when it was going to collapse. Bismarck saw it as inevitable and not worth helping.
Congress of Berlin 1878
After the Treaty of San Stefano after the war in the Balkans, great powers called the Congress to fix the problems that the treaty created. Re-divided land and gave basically everyone more territory except for Russia, creating resentment. The Balkan states were also ignored.
Austria v. Russia
In 1881 Bismarck renewed the Emperor's League between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia. However, Russia and Austria argued over the Balkans. The Russians were pro-Serbia, and the Austrians were pro-Bulgaria. In 1887, the Russians signed the conflicting Reinsurance Treaty with Germany, which ensured neutrality if either was attacked by a third power.
Germany v. Britain
Wilhelm antagonized the British-on purpose. He said that the Germans "wanted a place in the sun", and began a colonial and economic rivalry between Germany and Britain. Wilhelm sent the Kruger Telegram to the Boers, angering the British. He then started building a railway from Berlin to Baghdad, which worried the British (Baghdad was very close to India, and with the railway the Germans could send troops, supplies, etc., threatening Britain's "jewel"). Finally, Wilhelm started a dreadnought (type of naval ship) race with the British. The British were very worried because since they imported much more than exported, if they lost control of the ocean they'd starve!
Wilhelm II's new course
Wilhelm didn't understand how Bismarck's alliances worked, so refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. He angered the British, supported the aggressive Austrian Balkan policies, and didn't believe an alliance between France, Britain and Russia was possible. However, the three did indeed sign treaties between each other, against Germany.
1884, the French and British resolved imperial problems and signed the entente saying "let's be friends".
First and Second Balkan Wars
All of the Balkan territories wanted more land after the Congress of Berlin. 1st 1912-Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro went to war against the Turks. They won and divided the territory, but Bulgaria took too much. This spurred the 2nd war in 1913-The Turks, Romanians, Greeks, Serbs and Montengrins beat Bulgaria and took the land they just gained back.