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We the People: Eighth Texas Edition

Political Influences

The Family
Social Groups
Differences in Education
Political Conditions

Elisebeth Noelle-Neumann

Psychologist
Spiral of Silence
Conscious or unconscious acceptance of a groups beliefs and opinions

Gender Gap

A distinct pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men

Agencies of Socialization

Social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individual basic political beliefs and values

Political Socialization

The induction of individuals into the political culture, learning that underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is bases.

Equality of Opportunity

Should be allowed to seek personal and material success.
Linked to effort and ability

Attitude (or Opinion)

A special preference on a particular issue

Political Ideology

A cohesive set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy about the role of Gov.

Values (or Beliefs)

Basic principles that shape a person's opinions about political issues and events.

Public Opinion

Citizens attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events

Joseph Schumpter

Economist
"Public opinion was the product, not the motive power of the political process
Public opinion not the driving force in politics

Emerson Prima Snugger 52" Ceiling Fan - Brushed Steel

social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values

bandwagon effect

a shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner

conservative

today this term refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulae and economic arrangements. Conservatives believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens' freedom

illusion of saliency

the impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not

liberal

today this term refers to those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment

liberty

freedom from governmental control

marketplace of ideas

the public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete

measurement error

failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions

political efficacy

the ability to influence government and politics

probability sampling

a method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent

public-opinion polls

scientific instruments for measuring public opinion

push polling

a polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion

random digit dialing

a polling method in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample

salient interests

attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them

sample

a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population

sampling error

polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample

selection bias

polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied, which creates errors in over representing or under representing some opinions

The processes through which underlying political beliefs and values are formed are collectively called

political socialization.
public opinion.
survey research.
political learning.

political socialization.

Although political ideologies color our perspectives, they seldom fully determine our views. Why?

Most people have at least some conflicting underlying attitudes.
Individuals may have difficulty linking particular issues of personalities to their own underlying beliefs.
Most individuals' ideologies contain internal contradictions.
All of the above

All of the above

______________ are scientific instruments for measuring public opinion.

Samples
Public-opinion polls
Caucuses
Primaries

Public-opinion polls

According to the textbook, which type of equality is most prominent in the United States?

Equality of results
Output equality
Market equality
Equality of opportunity

Equality of opportunity

What is wrong with the following poll question: "Do you think it was appropriate for President Bush to lie so that he could start a war with Iraq?"

Selection bias
Sample size
Push polling
Saliency

Push polling

What is the so-called gender gap?

Different agents of socialization for men (boys) and women (girls)
Political and voting differences between men and women
The difference between the number of men and women serving in political institutions such as Congress
Different roles for men and women enlisted in the military (women generally not serving in combat positions)

Political and voting differences between men and women

Many states currently use which mechanism to allow public opinion to directly control policy?

The initiative and referendum
Town hall meetings
The election of state representatives
All of the above

The initiative and referendum

Which of the following is an example of a social group?

Women
A labor union
A political party
All of the above

All of the above

Which of the following is not important in determining the reliability of a poll?

Size of the population
Size of the sample
Wording of the questions
Margin of error

Size of the population

The ____________ is the interplay of opinions and views that takes place when competing forces attempt to persuade as many people as possible to accept a particular position on a particular event.

economic marketplace
marketplace of ideas
political marketplace
marketplace of demographics

marketplace of ideas

On average, Americans know

less about politics as compared to citizens of most countries.
about as much about politics as the rest of the world.
more about politics as compared to citizens of most countries.
more about politics as compared to citizens of any other country.

less about politics as compared to citizens of most countries.

The _________________ are among the most powerful forces operating in the marketplace of ideas.

state and federal governments
interest groups
communications media
nation's schools

communications media

The set of underlying orientations, ideas, and beliefs through which individuals come to understand and interpret politics is called

liberalism.
conservatism.
public opinion.
political ideology.

political ideology.

Recent studies by political scientists show that

Americans' knowledge of politics is generally high.
the average American exhibits little knowledge of political institutions, processes, or leaders.
there is actually little connection between possessing political knowledge and being an effective citizen.
it is often difficult for those seeking knowledge about government to actually find such information.

the average American exhibits little knowledge of political institutions, processes, or leaders.

Above all, a public-opinion sample must

be representative.
not be random.
consist of 10 percent of the population group.
be administered in person-to-person interviews.

be representative.

Which of the following can contribute to a lack of consistency between public opinion and governmental policy?

Politicians who care too much about public opinion
Politicians who don't care at all about public opinion
A committed majority that can override the viewpoint of the minority
A committed minority that can override the viewpoint of the majority

A committed minority that can override the viewpoint of the majority

Which of the following is a major difference between college graduates and other Americans?

College graduates have less political tolerance than Americans with less education.
College graduates are more religious than Americans with less education.
College graduates more often participate in politics, as compared to Americans with less education.
All of the above

College graduates more often participate in politics, as compared to Americans with less education.

Henry Louis Gates

...

Which of the following is the most likely cause of differences in opinion between African Americans and white Americans concerning the arrest of Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates?

The opinions of African Americans and white Americans did not in fact differ much.
African Americans and white Americans hold different political values.
African Americans and white Americans have different perspectives of and experiences with the criminal justice system.
African Americans and white Americans have different levels of irritation with college professors.

African Americans and white Americans have different perspectives of and experiences with the criminal justice system.

Which group is the most influential agent of socialization in early childhood?

Family
Schools
Peers
Media

Family

James Madison and other framers of the Constitution thought that ____________ would always be the most prevalent source of conflict in political life.

race
the inherent gulf between the rich and the poor
religion
education level

the inherent gulf between the rich and the poor

In general, the government's actions are __________ with citizen's preferences.

consistent
inconsistent
unconcerned
None of the above

consistent

The term used to denote the beliefs that people have about political issues, events, institutions, and personalities is

public opinion.
political socialization.
democracy.
political culture.

public opinion.

College graduates are

brainwashed by their liberal professors.
more likely to participate in politics.
less likely to support women's rights.
All of the above

more likely to participate in politics.

Which of the following is not one of the four most important agents of socialization?

Partisanship
Family
Membership in social groups
Prevailing political conditions

Partisanship

In many respects, schooling in the United States

helps determine a person's success in life.
is a great equalizer.
teaches children a common set of civic values.
All of the above

All of the above

The ability of the government to shape public opinion is

unlimited.
limited by other sources of information.
nonexistent.
None of the above

limited by other sources of information.

Which of the following agents of socialization provides most people with their initial orientation to politics?

Family
Peers
Church
Education

Family

"The South's move from the Democratic to the Republican camp took place because of white southern opposition to the Democratic Party's racial policies." According to the authors, this statement illustrates

how political conditions affect political beliefs.
how political socialization does not always work.
the transitory nature of political culture.
why the Democrats have not won a southern state in a presidential election since 1964.

how political conditions affect political beliefs.

Which of the following variables is likely to affect public opinion?

Income
Race
Education
Gender
All of the above

All of the above

I support the social and political status quo, and I am suspicious of government regulation of business. However, I favor government involvement in social issues and believe the government should promote prayer in public school. I am most likely

a liberal.
a conservative.
a libertarian.
None of the above

a conservative.

People are more likely to change their opinions when they

are presented with a well-reasoned argument.
are well-informed on the issue at hand.
don't have strong feelings about the issue at hand.
are regular voters.

don't have strong feelings about the issue at hand.

Which of the following is not a core U.S. value?

Individual liberty
Democracy
Big government
Equality of opportunity

Big government

The practice of push polling involves

telemarketers pretending to be pollsters to push their products.
calling people during dinnertime to ensure that as many people as possible will be home.
asking loaded questions to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.
pushing politicians to adopt policy proposals they would not otherwise adopt.

asking loaded questions to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.

Which kind of polling error arises when a sample of public opinion overrepresents or underrepresents some opinions?

Push polling
Margin of error
Errata
Selection bias

Selection bias

The impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not is known as

the existence of saliency.
the illusion of saliency.
the bandwagon effect.
push polling.

the illusion of saliency.

How did the framers of the Constitution grapple with the effect public opinion might have on governmental policy?

By creating a system that gave wealth and power to the elite
By creating a system that did not automatically let popular opinion translate into public policies
By creating a system of expressed powers
By creating a system that gave the people direct power to make public policies

By creating a system that did not automatically let popular opinion translate into public policies

I support political and social change, government intervention in the economy, and the expansion of federal social services. However, I mistrust government involvement in personal issues, such as telling my children when or how to pray. I am most likely

a liberal.
a conservative.
a libertarian.
None of the above

a liberal.

People's underlying beliefs and ideologies

force them to think carefully about each opinion that they hold.
color their perceptions so that they often make automatic judgments.
prevent liberals and conservatives from sharing similar core values.
are established when they are young and rarely change as they grow older.

color their perceptions so that they often make automatic judgments.

The idea of a "culture war" refers to which of the following?

The censoring of controversial South Park episodes by Comedy Central
Aggressive attempts by the National Endowment for the Arts to increase its annual budget
A perceived, deep divide in American culture, caused by differences in religious, moral, and political values
Generational differences among voters

A perceived, deep divide in American culture, caused by differences in religious, moral, and political values

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