helps the nurse understand the ability of living things to adjust (or adapt) in response to continuous internal and external stimuli.
are the building blocks of a nursing theory that is initiated, based on a personal philosophy or belief about nursing, and may be abstract or concrete.
Four universal concepts central to nursing practice
person, nurse, health, and environment
Conceptual models or nursing frameworks (aka paradigm)
structures that guide the development of a study (Levine, Orem, King, Newman, Roy, and Johnson
integrated set of concepts and statements that can be used to explain, describe, predict, or control a phenomenon. may be inductive or deductive reasoning (PP page 2)
defines the interdependence of environments in and around us. all parts of a system are connected, and a change in one part of the whole will have an effect on another. (Ludwig von Bertallanaffy)
Paradigm (aka conceptual model)
interrelated definitions and concepts that are organized for viewing phenomenon specific to nursing.
general to specific
1. All members of Class A are purple.
2. Mary is a member of Class A.
3. Therefore, Mary is purple
specific to general
1. 20 males btw the ages 19 and 35 had symptoms of PTSD after returning from war.
2. therefore, all males btw the ages of 19 and 35 returning from war will have symptoms of PTSD.
theory focused on three major relationships: environment to pt, nurse to environment, and nurse to pt. (Environment is the major focus)
helps you, as a nurse, function therapeutically in interactions and helps you understand behaviors in your patients, their families, and yourself.
From Novice to Expert, focuses on clinical nursing practice and her belief that nursing knowledge accrues over time.
level 1, student nurse or a skilled nurse being placed in an unfamiliar area
Advanced beginner nurse
level 2, considered the new graduate nurse who demonstrates marginally acceptable performance relies more on experienced nurses.
level 3, can multitask, plan and set goals, has ability to think abstractly and analytically.
level 4, is able to see the whole (rather than the parts) of a situation, recognizes subtle changes, and focuses on the long-term goals.
final level, has the ability to recognize patterns and responses that are automatic and integrated.
Peplau/ Theory of interpersonal relations
(focused on relationship btw nurse and patient) encouraged autonomy through interlocking and overlapping phases: preorientation, orientation, working, and termination
Imogene King/ Theory of Goal Attainment
focus on evaluating outcomes, setting goals, self-care. Goal of theory is health for individuals, groups, and society
Myra E. Levine/ Conservation model
based on three concepts: wholeness, adaptation, and conservation (example: obtaining a wheelchair for the pt (conserve energy))
Betty Neuman/ Health Care Systems model
theorizes that a person is a complex system that responds to stressors (internal and external environments) guides nursing practice at 3 levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary. focus evaluating pt stability, evaluating effects of stressors on the pt
Sister Callista Roy/ Roy adaptation model
goal of nursing is to promote adaptive responses through a six-step nursing process.
What are the six steps to Roys adaptation model?
1. assessing behaviors 2. assessing stimuli 3. formulating a nursing diagnosis 4. setting goals to promote adaptation 5. implementing interventions 6. evaluating whether the goals have been met
Developmental, or Physiological theories
for example Maslow's Theory of the Hierarchy of Needs, Erickson's Theory of Psychosocial Development; both teach nurses that all systems in the human body are interdependent.