learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
conditioning an organism to expect certain consequences for certain responses
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Which psychologist did Skinner elaborate on?
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
law of effect
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
Operant chamber (also known as a Skinner box)
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Building on the rat's existing behaviors, make them work harder for the reward each time, eventually make the press button for reward
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. it will strength a response.
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. any stimuli that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (NOT punishment)
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (such as getting food when hungry or having a painful headache go away)
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through the association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer (ex:money, good grades, pleasant tone of voice)
What is an example of a delayed reinforcer
good grades at the end of the semester, paycheck at the end of the week, trophy at the end of the season
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
example of partial reinforcement
salespeople do not make a sale every pitch, anglers dont get a bite with every catch
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses (free drink after every 10 purchased)
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses (slot machine players experience this-unpredictable ratio)
variable ratio schedules
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed (people checking more frequently for the mail as the delivery time approaches)
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
what are the four drawbacks of punishment
punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten. punishment teaches discrimination. punishment teaches fear. it may increase aggressiveness.
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a _____ of it.
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishments
when animals revert to biologically predisposed patterns, discovered by the Brelands
What did Skinner's critics say?
that he dehumanized people by neglecting their personal freedom and by seeking to control their actions