Anatomy Unit 3, Section 2

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How many hyoid bones are there?

1

Describe the hyoid bone?

Singular, U-shaped or horse-shoe shaped.

Where is the hyoid bone located?

In the cervical region, inferior to the mandible and superior to the (thyroid cartilage of the) larynx.

What bone lies inferior to the mandible and superior to the larynx?

The hyoid bone.

What bone is suspended from the styoid process of the temporal bone by ligaments and muscles?

The hyoid bone.

What bone supports the tongue?

The hyoid bone.

What does the hyoid bone articulate with?

No other bones.

What is the function of the hyoid bone?

-Supports the tongue
-Provides attachment sites of the tongue and neck muscles.

What is the vertebral column?

A strong, flexible group of bones called vertebrae that allow us to move anteriorly, posteriorly, and laterally. It encloses and protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and serves as an attachment for ribs.

What are the functions of the vertebral column?

-Encloses and protects spinal cord.
-Supports head.
-Allows for motion
-Serves as attachment for ribs

What forms the trunk of the body?

The vertebral column, sternum, and ribs.

The vertebral column, sternum, and ribs form?

The trunk of the body.

What is the large, disk-shaped portion of the vertebrae called?

The body

What are the pieces of fibrous cartilage in between the vertebral bodies called?

Intervertebral discs.

Number of adult vertebrae?

26

Number of infant vertebrae?

33

Number of cervical vertebrae?

7

Number of thoracic vertebrae?

12

Number of lumbar vertebrae?

5

Number of sacrul vertebrae?

1 in adults, 5 in infants.

Number of coccyl vertebrae?

1 in adults, 4 in infants.

The cervical vertebrae runs from?

c1-c7.

What vertebrae have smaller bodies than other vertebrae?

Cervical vertebrae

How many formina do cervical vertebrae have?

3

What are the forminas that cervical vertebrae have?

1.vertebral foreman, 2 transverse foreman

What passes through the vertebral foreman?

The spinal cord

What passes through the transverse foreman?

The vertebral arteries.

The spinal cord passes through?

The vertebral foreman.

The vertebral arteries pass through?

The transverse foreman.

Which vertebrae have a bifid spinous process?

c2-c6

What is the first cervical vertebrae also known as?

The atlas

What does the atlas do?

Supports the skull and articulates with the occipital condyles of the occipital bone.

What vertebrae could be described as 'a ring of bone'

The atlas.

What supports the skull and articulates with the occipital condyles of the occipital bone?

The atlas.

What is the 2nd cervical vertebrae also known as?

The axis.

Does the axis have a body?

Yes.

What is the dens or odontoid process associated with?

The axis.

What is another name for the odontoid process of c2?

The dens.

What does the dens of the axis articulate with?

The atlas.

What does the odontoid process allow you to do?

Move your head side to side and shake your head no.

What is the most prominent of the cervical vertebrae?

C7, also called Cervical prominens.

How is the Cervical Prominens different than the other 6 cervical vertebrae?

Contains a non-bifid spinous process.

Where does the thoracic region vertebrae run from?

T1-T12

How are thoracic vertebrae different than cervical vertebrae?

1. Larger in size
2. Their spinous processes project inferiorly. (downward.)

Which vertebrae do the ribs articulate with?

The thoracic vertebrae. (T1-T12)

How do the ribs articulate to the thoracic vertebrae?

Posteriorly.

What are the largest and strongest of the vertebrae?

The lumbar vertebrae.

Where do the lumbar vertebrae run from?

L1-L5.

What set of vertebrae has short, thick projections and is equipped for weight-bearing?

Lumbar vertebrae.

How many sacrums do infants have?

5

How many sacrums do adults have?

1

What shape is the sacrum?

A triangle

How is the sacrum formed?

By the fusion of the 5 sacral vertebrae in infants.

Where is the sacrum position?

At the posterior (bottom) portion of the pelvic cavity, medial to the hipbones.

What bone is found at the posterior portion of the pelvic cavity, medial to the hipbones?

The sacrum.

What bone serves as the foundation of the pelvic girdle?

The sacrum.

How many coccyxl vertebrae does an infant have?

4

How many coccyxl vertebrae does an adult have?

1

How is the coccyx formed?

By the fusion of the 4 coccyxl vertebrae in infants.

What is the most inferior portion of the vertebral column?

The coccyx.

What is the tailbone's big kid name?

The coccyx.

Where do intervertebral discs run from?

c2 to the sacrum. The atlas is the only one that doesn't have it.

What acts as shock absorbers?

Intervertebral discs.

What are intervertebral discs composed of?

Fibrous cartilage.

What bone is described as being flat, sword, or dagger shaped?

The sternum.

What is the breastbone's grownup name?

The sternum.

Where is the sternum located?

In the anterior (front) midline of the chest.

What does the sternum articulate with?

The clavicle.

What are the three portions of the sternum?

1. Manubrium
2. Body or Gladiolus
3.Xiphoid or Ensiform process.

The manubrium is associated with what bone?

The sternum.

What is the superior, triangular portion of the sternum called?

The manubrium.

Where does the clavicle and the first rib articulate with the sternum?

The manubrium.

What is the middle, largest portion of the sternum called?

The body, or gladiolus.

What is the inferior portion of the sternum called?

The xiphoid, or ensiform process.

The xiphoid, or ensiform process is associated with?

The sternum.

What is the smallest portion of the sternum?

The inferior portion, the xiphoid or ensiform process.

What does xiphoid mean?

Sword

What is another word for the ensiform process?

The xiphoid process

What is another word for the xiphoid process?

The ensiform process.

What is the depression in the medial, superior (middle, top) portion of the manubrium called?

Jugular notch or Suprasternal notch.

Where is the jugular notch?

On the medial, superior (middle top) part of the manubrium.

Where is the the suprasternal notch?

On the medial, superior (middle top) part of the manubrium.

What is another name for the the jugular notch?

The suprasternal notch.

What is located at either side of the jugular notch?

Clavicular notches.

What portion of the sternum are clavicular notches found in?

The manubrium, on either side of the jugular notch.

The clavicular notch of the sternum articulates with?

The sternal end of the clavicle.

The sternal end of the clavicle articulates with?

The clavicular notch of the sternum.

The clavicular notch of the sternum articulates with the sternal end of the clavicle to form?

The sternoclavicular articulation.

The sternoclavicular articulation is formed by?

The clavicular notch of the sternum and the sternal end of the clavicle.

What part of the sternum is involved in the sternoclavicular articulation?

The clavicular notch of the manubrium.

What is the part of the sternum where the manubrium meets the body called?

The sternal angle, or angle of louis.

What is another name for the sternal angle?

The angle of louis.

What is another name for the angle of louis?

The sternal angle.

What articulates at the sternal angle?

The 2nd rib.

Where does the 2nd rib articulate?

The sternal angle.

How many ribs are there?

24

How many pairs of ribs are there?

12

What do ribs do?

Protect the vital organs of the thorax.

What protects the vital organs of the thorax?

The ribs.

In the 1st thru 7th rib, the ribs...

increase in length.

To the 12th rib, the ribs...

decrease in length.

What do the ribs attach to posteriorly?

The thoracic vertebrae.

What do the ribs attach to anteriorly?

The sternum, by way of costal cartilage.

The first 7 pairs of ribs are called?

True ribs.

The true ribs are pairs...

1-7

The true ribs attach...

directly to the sternum via their own costal cartilage.

Do the true ribs attached directly to the sternum?

Yes.

There are how many pairs of true ribs?

7

The false ribs run from?

8-12

How many pairs of false ribs are there?

5

Where are false ribs called false ribs?

Because their costal cartilage does not attach directly to the sternum.

How many pairs of floating ribs are there?

2

Which pairs of ribs are floating ribs?

11 and 12

The cartilage of ribs 8, 9, 10 attach...

to eachother, and then to the cartilage of the 7th rib.

Which ribs attach to the cartilage of the 7th rib?

8, 9, and 10.

How many floating ribs are there?

4

Why are floating ribs called floating ribs?

They have NO anterior attachment to the sternum.

What is the only point of attachment for floating ribs?

Posteriorly, the thoracic vertebrae.

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