motivation and work flashcards

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motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

hierachy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before high level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. when its level is low, we feel hunger

set point

the point at which individuals weight thermostat is supposedly set. when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by masters and johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

estrogen

a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males, in nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones, both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

flow

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

industrial organizational psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

personnel psychology

a sub field of i/o psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

organizational psychology

a sub field of i/o psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

structured interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment, for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

task leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

social leadership

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

emotion

a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experiences

james-lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

cannon-bard theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion

two-factor theory

schachter-singer's theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

polygraph

a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes)

subjective well-being

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life

adaptation-level phenomenon

our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

relative deprivation

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

maintain homeostasis

By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to

food deprivation; hunger

Need is to ________ as drive is to ________.

hypothalamus

Orexin is an appetite hormone secreted by the

ventromedial hypothalamus; overeat

Destruction of the ________ causes an animal to ________

hunger

The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of

anorexia nervosa

Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

premature ejaculation

Which of the following is indicative of a sexual disorder

STIs

Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to ________ because of their lower levels of protective antibodies

with therapists, easy to change sexual orientation

Which of the following is not true with respect to sexual orientation?

erotic plasticity

Women more than men, prefer to alternate periods of high sexual activity with periods of very little sexual activity. This best illustrates gender differences in:

anterior commissure

A section of the ________ has been found to be larger in homosexual men than in heterosexual men

self esteem

Our ________ is said to be a gauge of how socially accepted we feel

industrial-organizational psychology

Personnel psychology is one of the main subfields of:

360-degree feedback

For each performance review, Professor Donnell is evaluated by her students, colleagues, department chair, and research assistants. This best illustrates:

celebrate employee productivity by providing them with recognition and rewards.

Compared to ineffective managers, those who are effective are more likely to:

instinct

After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of:

incentives

Some students work hard in school in order to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of:

financial circumstances; home life

In poorer nations, subjective well-being is especially likely to be influenced by satisfaction with one's ________. In wealthier countries, subjective well-being is especially likely to be influenced by satisfaction with one's ________.

lateral hypothalamus

A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.

decreases;increases

The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger.

bulimia nervosa

In an attempt to lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

cultural ideas of beauty increasing thinness

Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to:

resolution phase

During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?

testosterone;lowered

The removal of a woman's ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is _______.

a father's absence

In studies that followed hundreds of New Zealand and U.S. girls from age 5 to 18, ________ was linked to sexual activity before age 16.

more committed relationships with lesbians rather than gay men

Research on sexual orientation indicates that:

sexual orientation

The fraternal birth order effect refers to a factor associated with:

belongingness

When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs.

organizational psychology

Assessing the impact of different management styles on the motivation and productivity of employees best illustrates the professional concerns of:

social leadership

Managers who build teamwork and effectively mediate employee conflicts are said to excel in:

Masters and Johnson

Found the sexual response cycle, the four stages of sexual responding-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

simon levay

wrote Sexual Brain and Queer Science, completed research on the DNA and finding a gay gene, he found the gene INAH3 was more than twice as large in heterosexual men as in homosexual men

ostracism

excluded or shunned by others-people suffer from stress and depression

orexin

a reason for the variations in body chemistry that influence our feelings of hunger (not insulin, leptin, ghrelin, or PYY)

insulin

a hormone that is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle

ghrelin

a reason for the variations in body chemistry that influence our feelings of hunger (not insulin, leptin, orexin, or PYY)

lateral hypothalamus

Concerned with hunger. Damage to this area can cause reduced food intake. Stimulating this causes a desire to eat.

ventromedial hypothalamus

Concerned with hunger. Damage to this area can cause over-eating. Stimulating this causes a desire to stop eating.

interviewer illusion

a feeling of overconfidence in one's intuitive ability to predict employee success

leptin

a reason for the variations in body chemistry that influence our feelings of hunger (not insulin, ghrelin, orexin, or PYY)

360 degree feedback

also known as multi-rater feedback, multisource feedback, or multisource assessment, it is feedback that comes from all around an employee feedback is provided by subordinates, peers, and supervisors. It also includes a self-assessment and, in some cases, feedback from external sources such as customers and suppliers or other interested stakeholders

halo error

occurs when one's overall evaluation of an employee, or of a trait such as friendliness, biases rating of their specific work-related behaviors such as their liability

leniency or severity error

reflects evaluators tendencies to be either to easy or too harsh on everyone

recency errors

occur when raters focus only on easily remembered recent behavior

alfred kinsey

regarded by some as the father of the scientific study of human sexuality. Published a series of reports which described common sexual behaviors in the US, his sampling was later put into question

james-lange theory

we feel emotion after we notice our physiological responses

cannon-bard theory

we feel emotion at the same time that our bodies respond

sympathetic nervous system

mobilizes us for action by directing adrenals to release stress hormones, which in turn increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, and by triggering other defensive physical reactions

parasympathetic nervous system

calms us after a crisis has passed, though arousal diminishes gradually

arousal theory (Yerkes-Dodson Law)

Theory that states that human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it.

spillover effect

occurs when our arousal from one even influences our response to other events

robert zajonc

motivation; believes that we invent explanations to label feelings

joseph ledoux

psychologist who believed that some of our emotional reactions involve no deliberate thinking and cognition is not always necessary for emotion

richard lazarus

agrees that cognition is essential: Many important emotions arise from our interpretations or interferences.

paul ekman

1934-present; Field: emotion; Contributions: found that facial expressions are universal

carol izard

research found the 10 basic emotions of joy, interest-excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt

facial feedback

expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states, and the muscles signal the body to response as though

opponent process theory of emotion

following a strong emotion, an opposing emotion counters the first emotion, lessening the experience of that emotion; on repeated occasions, the opposing emotion becomes stronger

cognitive appraisal

the interpretation of an event that helps determine its stress impact

feel-good, do good phenomenon

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

arousal

a state of heightened physiological activity

anterior cingulated cortex

part of cortex that subserves primarily executive functions related to the emotional control of visceral, skeletal, and endocrine outflow.

catharsis

emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges

James-lange theory

Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?

walter cannon

Who suggested that very similar physiological reactions are associated with a variety of different emotions?

decreases salivation, increases blood pressure

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system:

best;moderate

Julie will be competing in a basketball free throw contest. Her performance is likely to be ________ if her physiological arousal during the performance is ________.

respiration

A lie detector is used to monitor a person's:

two-factory theory

If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are then insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by the:

cognitive appraisals

Whether we feel angry or depressed in response to a low exam grade depends on whether we attribute the poor grade to an unfair test or to our own lack of academic ability. This best illustrates that emotions are influenced by:

amygdala

The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the:

eyes;mouth

By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the ________.

evolutionary perspective

It has been suggested that raising the eyebrows is universally associated with the expression of surprise because this facial expression effectively widens the eyes to enhance the perception of unexpected circumstances. This suggestion best illustrates the:

james-lange theory

If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of the:

catharsis hypothesis

Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates the:

feel-good, do good phenomenon

After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the:

overestimate;overestimate

People ________ the long-term emotional impact of sustaining a paralyzing physical injury and they ________ the long-term emotional impact of acquiring wealth.

relative deprivation principle

Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of the:

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