Unit 3: Imperialism/World War I/Russian Revolution

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New imperialism

Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories

scramble for Africa

Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts

congress of berlin

The meeting which established the principle that European occupation of African territory had to be based on effective occupation that was recognized by other states and that no single nation could control Africa

Leopold II

King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River; ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain

David Livingstone

most important missionary and explorer of Africa in Victorian period, Scottish, went back and forth from Africa over 30 years, abolitionist, 1871 disappeared but was living among Africans, found by Sir Henry Morton Stanley

Henry Stanley

British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State

jingoism

extreme patriotism; favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy

geopolitics

an interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products

Indochina

French colony made up of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam

Panama Canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States

Menelik II

Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia;defeated the Italians and maintained their independence

Francesco Crispi

prime minister of Italy, tries to broker some agreements between the North, South, and the Church, takes away the right to vote from many people, he was heavy handed and authoritarian

Battle of Adowa

led by Menelik II, successful resistance in Ethiopia. The result was the Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their nation's independence

Great Trek

Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal

Orange Free State and Transvaal

The Trek Boers set up these two republics away from British rule that would have the same segregated way of life they are used to

Boer War

A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa

Cecil Rhodes

British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe

Jameson Raid

invasion of the Afrikaner territory of Transvaal, started by Rhodes, failed

apartheid

Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas

Opium War

a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China

Treaty of Nanking

Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain

extraterritoriality

right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country

spheres of influence

areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China

Sino-Japanese War

war fought between China and Japan over Korea from 1894 to 1895

Russo-Japanese War

A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea

Treaty of Portsmouth

1905 treaty between Russia and Japan ending the Russo-Japanese War (negotiated by Teddy Roosevelt); gave Japan South Manchuria and Korea

White Man's Burden

idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized

Black Man's Burden

a reply to Kipling's poem that was written by African-American clergyman and editor H. T. Johnson and published in April 1899

Sepoy Mutiny

an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India

Empress of India

the title adopted by Queen Victoria in 1877 to reflect the British rule of India

Paul Leroy-Beaulieu

wrote documents that supported the British imperialism saying that by investing in colonies they would get more money, resources, land, and technology

Joseph Chamberlain

British colonial secretary from 1895 to 1903; stated that the living standards of the working class could only be maintained by the creation of self-sustaining and self-protecting empires

Fashoda Affair

The conflict between Britain and France for control of Egypt area in Africa in the late 1890's. Never reached full-on war, but close. France lost in the end because of internal conflict over the Dreyfus Affair

orientalism

Term introduced to postcolonist theory by Edward Said and refers to the creation of non-European stereotypes that suggest "Orientals" or Asians are indolent, thoughtless, sexually immoral, unreliable and demented

social darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion

Herbert Spencer

English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (social darwinism)

informal imperialism

power is shared between local rulers, Stronger state allows weaker state to remain its independence but lessens its power; economic and military domination but not political functions

formal imperialism

direct military control over a territory; "protectorate" status

dual mandate

the idea that colonial powers ruled their colonies and used local rulers to carry out policies

John Atkinson Hobson

English economist and critic of imperialism-linked capitalism and imperialism

Pax Britannica

"British Peace", a century long period beginning with Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo in 1815 and ending with WWI in 1914 during which Britain's economic and diplomatic influence contribute to economic openness and relative peace

Friedrich Fabri

"father of German colonial movement;" wrote "Does Germany need colonies?"

Allies

in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers

Central Powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

Von Schlieffen Plan

plan by Germany to end war quickly, attack France through Belgium, if successful only one front with Russia

Black Hand

the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand

Princip

A black hand gang member, was the person who killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife

Sarajevo

largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary conquered it, along with Bosnia and Herzegovina; where Franz Ferdinand was assassinated

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.

trench warfare

Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire; Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI

tank

an enclosed armored military vehicle invented by British and first used during Battle of the Somme

machine gun

a rapidly firing automatic gun (often mounted)

airplane

used for the first time in war to do bombs

poisonous gas

usually mustard and chlorine varieties; outlawed in war after WWI

Western front

the name given to the line of trenches which stretched from the English Channel across the battle fields of France and Belgium during WWI, A line of trenches and fortifications in World War; fighting between Germany and France & Britain

Eastern front

the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks

Gallipoli

A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire to open connection through Turkey to Russia

total war

all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat with channeling of resources

Woodrow Wilson

represents US at peace conference; has 14 points plan to bring lasting peace

Georges Clemenceau

French representative at the Paris Peace Conference; pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles

David Lloyd George

Britain's prime minister and representative at peace conference;goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI

Fourteen Points

a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I

Versailles Treaty

The compromise after WWI, settled land and freedom disputes; Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things; The US Senate rejected it.

Treaty of Brest Litovsk

treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917; Russia lost Balkan states

Mensheviks

the majority party that opposed the Bolsheviks; tried to take power from Bolsheviks in Civil war beginning in 1918, but did not succeed.

Bolsheviks

Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WWI

Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution, Communism, and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Trotsky

Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; ousted from the Communist Party by Stalin; Lenin's right hand man

Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Soviets

a Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers

April Theses

document drafted by Lenin rejecting the Provisional Government of Russia established by the Duma

Bloody Sunday

1905; peaceful march by Russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds

March Revolution

overthrew czar Nicholas and Romanov dynasty and set up the provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky

November Revolution

Nov. 1917 when Lenin and Bolshevik followers overthrew provisional government and took over the Russian government

Kerensky

Russian revolutionary who was head of state after Nicholas II abdicated but was overthrown by the Bolsheviks (1881-1970)

War Communism

Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control

NEP

new economic policy, which brought about some capitalist reforms to help improve the Russian economy (letting some small businesses be privately owned), and as a way to retreat from war communism; was supposed to be temporary

Five Year Plans

Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928; set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state

Comintern

Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin; wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.

purges

was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin

Law on abortion

Bolshevik government issued a Decree on Women's Healthcare, which provided for free and on demand abortions for the first time in the world

collectivization

combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government

polarization

a sharp division, as of a population or group, into opposing factions-happened in Europe with countries aligning themselves with others

Belgium

Took over Congo

Great Britain

Took over Africa in a straight line from Egypt to South Africa + Nigeria, and the Gold Coast and India, Burma, Australia, and Hong Kong

France

Took over Madagascar, West Africa, and Equatorial Africa, and Indochina

Germany

Took over Toga, Cameroon, and East Africa (Tanganyika) and Southwest Africa (Namibia)

Italy

Took over Libya, Eritrea, and Somaliland

Portugal

Took over Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea

Spain

Took over Rio de Oro and the top of Morocco

United States

Took over Hawaii, Samoa, Panama Canal and got the Caribbean and Philippines from a war

Russia

Took over the Maritime Provinces

eugenics

study of genetics to improve inherited characteristics of a race

Treaty of Shimenoseki

Treaty after Sino-Japanese War that gave Japan Taiwan and strong influence in Korea

home

Bismarck says Germany should be strong at

Berlin Conference 1878

conference between Britain, Russia, Germany, Ottoman Empire, and Austro-Hungarian Empire due to fear of Russian influence, espeically in the balkans. This diminished Ottoman Holdings and failed to bring peace to the Balkans; France conceded claims to Cyprus, GB to Tunisia, and Bismarck gets France to settle in area near Tunisia

John Rowlands

Henry Stanley's original name

Triple Entente

An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI

Triple Alliance

An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI

French Plan XVII

called for concentration of troops in a single area with the intention of decisively defeating the enemy. Used Alsace and Lorraine as the target for their concentrated power (left Paris exposed) but didn't know about the Schlieffen Plan

neutral

Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia were all

flame throwers

weapon used by Germans against British tanks

Lusitania

American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

Zimmerman Telegram

A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S

Ludendorff offensive

German sent troops west, last ditch effort to close Western Front before US involvement, all in, almost successful (20 miles from Paris)

Vittorio Orlando

Italy's representative in Council of Four

Reinsurance Treaty

agreement between Germany and Russia that stipulated that each power would maintain neutrality should the other find itself at war; Wilhelm fired Bismarck, removed treaty, Russia allied with France

Anglo-French Entente (Dual Entente)

In 1904, Britain and France signed this document that that implied if one was attacked, the other would come to its aid because of common enemy of Germany

Japan

Pacific Country that was similar to and sympathetic to Great Britain

propaganda

ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause

Battle of Jutland

Largest naval battle of WWI. (May-June) Brits vs. Germans in North Seas; No clear winner

Central, Allied

Italy changes alliance from the __________ Powers to the _________ Powers

tutelage

instruction, protection, or guardianship

reporation

Paying back; making amends; compensation

demilitarized, secret, chemical, League of Nations

The Treaty of Versailles: __________ Germany, no _______ treaties or ________ warfare, created _____________

Alsace and Lorraine

What did France get from the Treaty of Versailles?

Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland

Three big new independent countries as a result of Treaty of Versailles

aborogation

doing away with

Baltic states

The Treaty of Versailles gives Russia back the

Article 231

War Guilt Clause in Treaty of Versailles

John Mayard Keynes

Wrote the Economic Consequences of the Peace (about the Treaty of Versailles)

conditions

From WWI, we learn that we shouldn't end a war with

Witte

in Russia; this minister of finance helped push construction of railroads, encouraged protective tariffs, persuaded Nicholas II that foreign capital was essential, and helped the rapid growth of the modern steel and coal industry

majority

Bolsheviks means the

minority

Mensheviks means the

October Manifesto

Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma

Cadettes

political party in Russia that believed in working through a representative body

Duma

brings Great Britain into relationship with Russia

Russia

Russia or Britain: gets Northern Persia (with Tehran)

Britain

Russia or Britain: gets Southern Persia (and Afghanistan)

Kornilov Affair

in late 1917 Kerensky's commander in chief led a feeble attack against the provincial government in September; his forces were quickly defeated

Gregorian

Lenin changed Russia to this calendar

religion

outlawed by Lenin in Russia

Constituent Assembly

a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenin's orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates

Russian Civil War

1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

What does the USSR stand for?

Treaty of Rapallo

A secret treaty signed in 1922 between Germany and the USSR. This was a treaty of mutual assistance that allowed the Germans to develop weapons in violation of the Versailles Treaty

Stressemann

German statesman who orchestrated German's road to recovery

reinsurance

In 1892 Germany didn't renew its __________ treaty

Kremlin

the name of the building that housed the Soviet government offices

Italia Irredenta

Italy's desire to obtain lands right above northern Italy

Trotsky

most feared by other senior members of Lenin's government because of his Red Army; refused to compete for leadership; exiled to Turkey and then Mexico and then killed

Stalin

After Lenin's death, played all of the other leaders against each other to gain power

KOLKHOV

system where the government combines land

SOLKHOV

farming completely taken over by government and send people to work it

kulaks

wealthy peasants who were infuriated by collectivization

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