mrdgeography early civilizations vocabulary

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30 terms

dynasty

a ruling family

pharaohs

Egyptian kings

vizier

chief minister in ancient Egypt

hieroglyphics

a form of picture writing developed by the ancient Egyptians

ideograms

pictures that symbolize an idea or action

hierarchy

a system of ranks

ziggurat

a pyramid like temple built by Sumerians

cuneiform

a type of writing developed by the Sumerians

alphabet

a type of writing in which letters represent spoken sounds

Code of Hammurabi

a set of laws developed around 1800 bce in Babylon

Ten Commandments

a set of laws that Jews believe God gave them through Moses

Torah

first five books of the Old Testament

Zoroastrianism

system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster

Phoenicians

people who lived on the coast of the Mediterranean in present day Lebanon and Syria who became sea traders

monotheistic

belief in one god

polytheistic

belief in many gods

Aryan

group of Indo-Europeans who migrated into South Asia around 1500 bce

brahman

spiritual power that resides in all things

Vedas

collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings from the Aryans

karma

the actions of a person's life that affect his or her fate in the next life

reincarnation

rebirth of the soul in another bodily form

moksha

union of brahman

atman

the essential self of every person that seeks union with brahman

dharma

religious and moral duties of an individual

ahmisa

both the avoidance of violence toward other life-forms and an active sense of compassion toward them.

nirvana

union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth

filial piety

respect for parents

caste system

a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society

analects

a collection of the sayings of Confucius

Tao

the way

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