the process of ingesting and absorbing food to provide the energy for life, promote growth, and repair or replace worn or damaged tissues
Transport involves what?
movement of nutrients, water,ions, and other materials into and out of the various cells and tissues of organisms
What process includes absorption of small molecules across cell membranes and secretion of biochemicals, such as enzymes, mucous, and hormones?
What system plays an important role in transport?
What is the process by which nutrients and simple molecules are used to form more complex molecules for growth, repair, and reproduction?
the process of breaking down complex molecules to release energy from chemical bonds
Metabolism includes what?
Anabolism, Catabolism, and provides small molecules, such as simple sugars and amino acids, as building blocks for more complex molecules
an internal balance in all aspects of metabolism and biological function
A special form of catabolism that breaks down food into smalller molecules and releases energy is what?
Absorption allows small molecules to pass through ______ through out the body tissues?
What else does absorption allow?
gas exchange, and in some species, such as plants and fungi, nutrients are obtained by absorption from soil and water
The behavior of living things is a response to what?
stimuli in the environment
light, chemical signals, noise, or a change in the seasons
the elimination of waste products
The creation of offspring is called what?
How does living things reproduce?
sexually, asexually, or both.
List the most abundant elements that all living things are made of.
1. CARBON 2.HYDROGEN 3.NITROGEN 4.OXYGEN 5.PHOSPOROUS 6.SULFUR
How do all species carry out essential biological activities?
by consuming or absorbing nutrients
___ activites,such as digestion, provide the energy and building blocks for biosynthetic (______) activites, such as growth, repair, and reproduction
Catabolic and anabolic
All living things use what to catalyze the chemical reactions of life?
Cellular respiration is
a catabolic activity that breaks down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate(ATP)
The by products of cellular respiration are?
carbon dioxide and water
Cellular respiration consumes what?
In eukaryotic cells, cellular respiration takes place where?
in the mitochondria
In prokaryotic cells(bacteria), cellular respiration takes place where?
on the cell membrane, since bacteria don't contain mitochondria
Respiration includes what metabolic pathways?
1. glycolysis 2. the Krebs cycle 3. the electron transport chain
The metabolic pathways can work together to do what?
Completely oxidize one molecule of glucose, producing up to 38 molecules of ATP in the process
Synthesis of ATP is an _____ process.
Photosynthesis is the process of
organisms using sunlight as a source of energy to synthesize carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and other organic substances
Who are the producers of the biosphere?
What is the site of photosynthesis in plants and eukaryotic algae?
What is the first stage of photosynthesis?
"the light reactions" that convert solar energy to chemical energy
The Calvin cycle is what?
the second of photosynthesis which consumes carbon dioxide from the environment
What does the Calvin Cycle use as a source of energy to produce carbohydrates from CO2?
ATP produced in the light reactions
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have in each cell?
What are the pairs of chromosomes called?
One pair is called the sex chromosome and the other 22 pairs are called autosomes
Each pair of chromosomes is a what?
homologous pair(having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order)
For each pair of the 23 chromosome pairs in humans, how many are from the mother and father in each pair?
1 from the mother and 1 from the father
The gametes, or sex cells, have how many single chromosomes each?
When fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg, or zygote, then containes how many pairs of chromosomes?
DNA stands for what?
What is primarily made up of DNA?
The subunits of DNA are bases called what?
adenine(A), cytosine(C), guanine(G), and thymine(T)
The Bases pairs are formed how?
A-T or T-A, C-G or G-C
The DNA bases are called what?
complementary base pairs
What happens when the strands of DNA seperates to reproduce?
the base pairs split apart
After each base pair of DNA splits apart, what happens?
Each strand then binds to new complementary bases to form two identical daughter strands.
Each new double strand of DNA containing one of the original strands and one new strand is called what?
What are alleles?
pairs of genes that have the same position on each memeber of a pair of chromosomes, and which can take alternate forms
Chromosomes are made up of subunits are called what?
Allele codes for dominant traits are assigned what?
Recessive traits are assigned the same letter but in what?
Dominant genes control ____ of the individual.
the phenotype( appearance)
RNA does what?
helps transcribe the genetic code in DNA and translartes it into proteins
RNA contains what?
a single-stranded molecule, made up of nitrogen bases, and contains uracil(U) instead of thymine(T)
Whats the difference between RNA and DNA?
the messenger RNA (mRNA) contains a U instead of a T code, and that U would be opposite to an A on the DNA strand
The three types of RNA are?
messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA(tRNA), and ribosomal RNA(rRNA)
What does the different types of RNA do?
work together in the cell cytoplasm to carry out protein sythesis
mRNA does what?
carries the "message" or genetic code from the DNA
Ribosomes made up of rRNA, serve as the site of what?
What does tRNA do?
carries the amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
The ________ pairs with the codon on the _____ to make sure that the correct amino acid is added to the protein being synthesized.
tRNA anticodon, mRNA
Whats an example of a codon?
UGU and UGC
How many codons and amino acids are there?
64 codons and 21 amino acids
Mitosis is what?
an asexual process whereby cells divide for the purpose of growth and repair
What is produced from mitosis?
two identical daughter cells; occasional differences may occur due to mutations
Give other examples of asexual reproduction.
budding and binary fission
Meiosis is what?
a process of cell division that produces gametes for sexual reproduction
What is the human genome project?
a project conducted to map the location and function of every gene on all of the human chromosomes
About how many genes do humans have?
What is bioremediation?
a special area of biotechnology that uses microorganisms to destroy harmful materials in the environment, leaving harmless molecules as by-products
The theory of natural selection essentially states that:
1. members of a species have different traits, which can be inherited
2.all species produce more offspring than can reproduce or survive (survival of the fittest)
3. some individuals adapt to change, and they survive and reproduce more succesfully than those that can't adapt
4.The offspring of subsequent generations inherit the adaptive characteristics
5.Natural selection produces populations adapted to their particular environment
The study of the interactions of organisms with their environment, both living and nonliving is what?
What's the difference between abiotic and biotic?
abiotic is nonliving organisms and biotic is living organisms
How does communities interact?
competition, symbiosis and predation
What are some factors that limit population size?
competition for food, space,and the changing of seasons
Where did Charles Darwin travel to observe the abundant and unique life forms?
throught the Southern Hemisphere in the 1830s
What was the name of the ship Darwin traveled aboard?
the HMS Beagle
What encomposes a balanced ecosystem?
recycling dead and used materials, has an energy source, and includes producers (green plants), consumers( herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores), decomposers(bacteria and fungi), and abiotic components
A squence of communities evolving from simple to complex in a particular environment
Each community is a _____, and the entire sequencs is a ______.
seral stage and sere
What's the first seral stage?
a pioneer community
What's the final seral stage?
Succession from sand dunes to mature decidous forests represents a sere typical of where?
the mid-Atlantic coastal region of the US
Selectively permeable in reference to the cell membrane means what?
that the cell membrane controls which molecules enter or leave the cell
What are some of the things cell membranes control from entering or exiting a cell?
gases, nutrients, water, and wastes
The cell membrane consists of what?
a bilayer of phospholipids(a type of fat)
What are carrier proteins?
proteins imbedded in the cell membrane's bilayer that sometimes help transport molecules across the bilayer by forming channels