Which of the following is the correct sequence for the motivational process?
need - drive - response - goal attainment
When your body falls below its set point for body temperature, your body will automatically try to bring the body back into
Changes in _____ levels are thought to partly explain winter depressions that occur when people endure several months of long dark days.
When you are hungry, your stomach lining produces _____, a hormone that activates your lateral hypothalamus.
There is a genetic defect in which a person has reduced _____ levels in his or her body, leading to obesity.
One of the reasons people who go on strict or severe diets tend to rebound and regain the weight is that
dieting causes the body to become efficient at conserving calories as fat.
In the treatment of eating disorders, _____ therapy is most often used to change thinking patterns and beliefs about weight and body shape that perpetuate eating disorders.
The period during which female animals are sexually receptive is called
After an animal is allowed to copulate until it has no further interest, it will resume sexual activity when a new partner is provided. This is called
the Coolidge effect.
People who are _____ tend to be bold and independent, to value change, to be more likely to smoke and to have more sexual partners, and to prefer spicy, sour, and crunchy foods.
high sensation seekers
You have a friend who freezes on tests. What is the most direct remedy you could recommend?
Overprepare by studying long before the test date.
Studies have found that those college students who are high in nAch tend to attribute success to _____ and failure to _____.
ability; insufficient effort
According to Maslow's theory, the basic needs include all of the following EXCEPT
The three components of emotions are emotional expressions, emotional feelings, and
When the _____ branch is activated, sugar is released into the bloodstream for quick energy, the heart beats faster to supply blood to the muscles, digestion is temporarily slowed, and blood flow in the skin is restricted to reduce bleeding.
During her morning walk, Vicki has encountered a strange dog and fear has enveloped her. Just then the dog's owner appears, pets his dog, and introduces himself and his dog to Vicki. The dog begins to wag its tail, and Vicki even pets the dog as she breathes a sigh of relief. As she begins the rest of her walk, Vicki's heart rate begins to slow down and her formerly sweaty palms are now dry. Her calmer demeanor is due to the _____ nervous system.
Asian cultures tend to express the emotion of anger less and regard it as less "natural" because Asian cultures emphasize
that anger separates people.
Which of the following has been found to be consistently related to lying?
none of these
Which of the following theories of emotion would explain that the feelings occur after the bodily arousal, that is, you see a bear, you run, are aroused, and, lastly, you feel fear?
_____ is the mental process of assigning causes to events, such as in emotion, one assigns bodily arousal to a particular source.
Dr. Hart's research interests include the mental activities involved in processing images, concepts, words, rules, and symbols. He would best be described as studying
Images retrieved from memory for use in solving a problem are known as
A _____ is a guideline for deciding whether objects or events belong to a concept class.
Which type of meaning is included in the connotative meaning of a word?
Two-way bilingual education eliminates the problems of subtractive bilingualism by
teaching half the day in English and the other half of the day in the second language.
The first successful method of teaching chimpanzees "words" involved Beatrix and Allen Gardner using
American Sign Language.
Almost everyone who has tried to play a poker game like Texas Hold'Em begins at the mechanical level of
You are locked in a windowless room with only a candle, a quarter, and a slab of processed cheese food. If you are able to use all of these items successfully to escape from the room, you would most likely have used selective
One barrier to the use of group learning in the American classrooms is the view by some parents and teachers that students should strive for independence and self-sufficiency in their learning and illustrates a(n) _____ barrier to the use of group learning.
Thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives is referred to as _____ thinking, while thinking that is directed toward a single established correct answer is called _____ thinking.
The stage of creative thought during which massive amounts of information relevant to the solution are assembled is the _____ stage.
Psychologist Nalini Ambady asked people to watch three ten-second video clips of teachers they did not know and then rate these teachers. The intuitive ratings by these subjects watching the three ten-second clips _____ year-end course evaluations made by the actual students.
showed a positive correlation with the
Alfred Binet is best known for
developing the first useful individual test of intelligence.
When one's mental age is the same as one's actual age in years, then
one's IQ is 100.
Which is a difference between the WAIS-III and the Stanford-Binet (SB5)?
The WAIS-III is designed to test adults, while the SB5 tests individuals from two to 85+-years-old
The SB5 and the Wechsler tests are _____ tests.
When Terman compared the most successful gifted subjects to the least successful, the two groups differed primarily in
persistence and motivation.
Savant syndrome refers to a person
having limited intelligence but showing exceptional abilities in art, music, mental arithmetic, or calendar calculations.
Language, music, bodily-kinesthetic, and naturalist are four of the components of
intelligence, according to Gardner.
Computer simulations and expert systems provide good examples of how _____________ is being used as a research tool.
The three basic processes of memory are
encoding, storage, retrieval.
Sensory, short-term, and long-term are the three stages of the
Atkinson-Schiffrin model of memory
Selective attention determines what information moves from _____ to short-term memory.
Whenever you are doing mental arithmetic, planning a meal, or reading a book, you are using
Although all of these memories are used in our everyday lives, which of the following are we most likely to notice as we carry out our daily chores?
When a person stores information through rote learning, they have utilized which of the following to the greatest extent?
Greg is watching television when a beer commercial comes on that he has seen many times. In this commercial, a boy goes to a cool party, sees an attractive girl, flashes his favorite beer, and gets the girl. A year later, a friend asks Greg where he met his girlfriend, and he relates a scenario very similar to the beer commercial, although his girlfriend does not remember any alcoholic beverages being served at this small "party" where they met. According to Jesse Shapiro, Greg's creation of a "memory" that never really happened occurred because advertisers are attempting to
"jam" your memories.
Procedural memory would be affected by damage to the
_____ memories are like looking in an encyclopedia, while _____ memories are like looking into your own personal photo album.
Which of the following methods of measuring memory is being used when a student is required to recite poetry verbatim?
The occurrence of false positives during police lineups can be minimized by
all of these.
After a long flight, a very tired Mark rented a car at the airport and drove to a nearby motel. The next morning, when he went to the parking lot, he could not remember what make, model, or color car he had rented. Mark's forgetting illustrates
The fact that one's memory can be influenced by the mood or bodily condition that exists at the time of learning and at the time of retrieval is known as
The degree of interference that occurs when studying two school subjects for equal amounts of time during an evening study session is based on
the similarity of the two subjects.
Forgetting events that occurred just before a head injury would be an example of
Satera was in her car when the bridge collapsed. Her car dropped 30 feet to the ground. Although Satera experienced only scratches and brusises, this emotionally-charged event produced a very lasting and vivid flashbulb memory. Which part of the brain is responsible for intensifying this tragic memory for Satera?
After _____ occurs, an affected brain cell will respond more strongly to messages from other cells. Thus, the brain uses this mechanism to form lasting memories.
When Sarah mentally reviews and relates her own life experiences to what she is learning in her psychology class, it will be easier for her to recall the information on an exam. Sarah is engaging in
In an experiment examining the memory effects of recitation (Gates, 1959), it was found that those students with the highest memory scores had spent _____ percent of their time reciting and _____ of their time reading.
all of these
The two types of associative learning are
classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
A puff of air will make your eye blink every time it hits your eye. If we sound a horn before each puff of air hits your eye several times, you will soon blink to the horn alone. Thus, blinking to the horn illustrates
The proper order of events required for classical conditioning to occur is
Mora is eight years old and is undergoing chemotherapy. When she goes into the treatment center for her third treatment, Mora experiences nausea before the treatment even begins. Her nausea had been triggered by the sight of the treatment room. This anticipatory nausea would be _____ and occurred even at times when Mora does not receive chemotherapy.
The reappearance of a previously extinguished response is known as
a spontaneous recovery.
During a conditioned emotional response that is negative, an area of the brain called the _____ becomes more active and produces feelings of fear.
In operant conditioning, any event that reliably increases the probability or frequency of responses it follows is called a(n)
Fatima sees her four-year-old son spontaneously picking up his toys. If she wishes for her son to continue this behavior, she should
praise her son immediately after he finishes picking up the toys.
_____ develops when children are ignored for playing quietly, but are given attention in the form of scolding for "showing off," breaking something, or throwing a temper tantrum.
Negative attention seeking
If you walk under a ladder and then break a leg, you may avoid ladders in the future. Each time yhou acoid a ladder and nothing happens, this avoidance action is reinforced. This illustrates
Which of the following is a real world example of using positive reinforcement to change people's behaviors so that they would increase their conservation efforts?
rebates for buying energy-efficient appliances or cars
Agricultural workers are paid according to the number of barrels of apples they pick. They are on which schedule of reinforcement?
A teacher tells her first graders that whenever the bell on her clock rings, the students who are in their seats will each receive one token to put in their "happy jars." She then says, "No one knows when the clock will ring. It might be ten minutes, it might be 17 minutes, or only five minutes; so you better be in your seat." The teacher is using a _____ schedule of reinforcement for "in-seat" behavior.
A child who is a model of good behavior when his parents are present, but who becomes uncontrollable when the babysitter arrives, is demonstrating
operant stimulus discrimination.
Drawbacks to punishment include
all of these.
You work with a loud and obnoxious person and try to end your conversation with him as soon as possible, which illustrates _____ learning; while "going the opposite way" when you see him coming down the hall illustrates _____.
escape learning; avoidance learning
In order to teach a person that a response is wrong, the optimal method would be to
ignore the undesired behavior and reward an alternate, desired response.
You have a mental picture of how your city is organized so that you can easily take an alternate route if there is a traffic jam. Psychologists call this mental map a(n)
Skills, such as dancing, tying your shoe, or playing a guitar, are most easily learned through
If you watch television every night and want to study more, make it a rule not to turn on the set until you have studied for an hour. Then, lengthen the requirement each week. Using the television watching as a reinforcement for studying is an example of
the Premack principle