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B2C

Consumer shopping on the Web is often called ____.

processes

The group of logical, related, and sequential activities and transactions in which businesses engage are often
collectively referred to as business ____.

C2C

Some researchers define a fourth category of electronic commerce called ____, which includes individuals who buy and sell items among themselves.

wire transfers

Electronic funds transfers are also called ____.

trading partners

Businesses that engage in EDI with each other are called ____.

VAN

A(n) ____ is an independent firm that offers connection and transaction-forwarding services to buyers and
sellers engaged in EDI.

PEW Internet & American Life Project

The ____ began conducting several long-term research projects in 2000 to study the growth of the Internet
and its effects on society.

Intel

____ is a good example of a company that sells its products to other businesses rather than to consumers.

The first wave of electronic commerce was predominantly a U.S. phenomenon.

Which of the following statements is correct?

business model

A(n) ____ is a set of processes that combine to yield a profit.

revenue model

A(n) ____ is a specific collection of business processes used to identify customers, market to those customers, and generate sales to those customers.

merchandising

The combination of store design, layout, and product display knowledge is called ____.

return-on-investment

Businesses often calculate ____ numbers before committing to any new technology.

Transaction costs

____ are the total of all costs that a buyer and a seller incur as they gather information and negotiate a
purchase-and-sale transaction.

SWOT analysis

One significant component of ____ can be the investment a seller makes in equipment or in the hiring of skilled employees to supply the product or service to the buyer.

vertical integration

The practice of an existing firm replacing one or more of its supplier markets with its own hierarchical
structure for creating the supplied product is called ____.

commodities

Many ____, such as wheat, sugar, and crude oil, are still traded in markets.

network economic structure

In a ____, companies coordinate their strategies, resources, and skill sets by forming long-term, stable
relationships with other companies and individuals based on shared purposes.

virtual companies

Strategic partnerships occurring between or among companies operating on the Internet are called ____.

Network

____ organizations are particularly well suited to technology industries that are information intensive.

network effect

As more people participate in a network, the value of the network to each participant increases. This is known as the ____.

value chain

A ____ is a way of organizing the activities that each strategic business unit undertakes to design, produce,
promote, market, deliver, and support the products or services it sells.

value system

Porter uses the term ____ to describe the larger stream of activities into which a particular business unit's
value chain is embedded.

strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

SWOT is the acronym for ____.

Dell Computer

In the mid-1990s, ____ used a SWOT analysis to create a business strategy that helped it become a strong
competitor in its industry value chain.

culture

The combination of language and customs is often called ____________________.

Time Berners-Lee

HTML was developed by _____.

Mosaic

_____ was the first Web browser that became widely available for personal computers.

circuit

The combination of telephone lines and the closed switches that connect them to each other is called a _____.

packets

On a packet-switched network, files and e-mail messages are broken down into small pieces, called _____.

Routers

When packets leave a network to travel on the Internet, they must be translated into a standard format. _____ usually perform this translation function.

the Internet backbone

Routers and the telecommunications lines connecting them are collectively referred to as _____.

protocol

A _____ is a collection of rules for formatting, ordering, and error checking data sent across a network.

Protocols

_____ determine how the sending device indicates that it has finished sending a message, and how the receiving device indicates that it has received the message.

octet

In networking applications, an 8 bit number is often called a(n) _____.

subnetting

Network engineers have devised a number of stopgap techniques to stretch the supply of IP addresses. One of the most popular techniques is _____.

network address translation device

A computer called a _____ converts private IP addresses into normal IP addresses when it forwards packets from those computers to the Internet.

128-bit

IPV6 uses a _____ number for addresses.

hexadecimal

The _____ numbering system uses 16 characters.

Domain names

_____ are sets of words that are assigned to specific IP addresses.

Web server

The purpose of a(n) _____ is to respond to the request for Web pages from Web clients.

URL

The combination of the protocol name and the domain name is called a _____.

SMTP

_____ specifies the format of a mail message and describes how mail is to be administered on the e-mail server and transmitted on the Internet.

MIME

_____ is a set of rules for handling binary files, such as word processing documents, spreadsheets, photos, or sound clips, that are attached to e-mail messages.

IMAP

A newer e-mail protocol that performs that same basic functions as POP, but includes additional features, is known as _____.

IMAP

_____ lets users create and manipulate e-mail folders and individual e-mail messages while the messages are still on the e-mail server.

HTML

The early versions of _____ let Web page designers create text-based electronic documents with headings, title bar titles, bullets, lines, and ordered lists.

anchor

In HTML, hyperlinks are created using the HTML _____ tag.

intranet

A(n) _____ is an interconnected network, usually one that uses the TCP/IP protocol set, and does not extend beyond the organization that created it.

VPN

A(n) _____ is like a separate, covered commuter lane on a highway (the Internet) in which passengers are protected from being seen by the vehicles traveling in the other lanes.

virtual private network.

An extranet that uses public networks and their protocols to send sensitive data to partners, customers, suppliers, and employees using a system called IP tunneling or encapsulation is known as a _____.

color settings on computer monitors vary widely

One problem that the Web presents for clothing retailers of all types is that ____.

Buy.com

____ is an example of a company that operates as a Web-based deep discounter.

LexisNexis

____ began as a legal research tool, and it has been available as an online product for years.

ProQuest

____ has its roots in two businesses: the former Bell and Howell, and University Microfilms International.

stickiness

The ____ of a Web site is its ability to keep visitors at the site and attract repeat visitors.

mixed advertising-subscription

The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal use the ____ revenue model.

Sabre Travel Network

Travel agents have used networked computers, such as the ____ system, for years.

fee-for-transaction

Stock brokerage firms use a(n) ____ revenue model, which allow them to charge their customers a
commission for each trade executed.

1970s

The U.S. government deregulated the securities trading business in the early ____.

security

The greatest concerns that most people have when they consider moving their financial transactions to the Web are ____ and reliability.

Fee-for-service

____ revenue models range from games and entertainment to financial advice and the professional services of accountants, lawyers, and physicians.

Entertainment Software Association

The ____ is an industry group that tracks computer and video game use.

State Laws

____ have been one of the main forces preventing U.S. professionals from extending their practices on the
Web.

cannibalization

Channel conflict is also referred to as ____.

strategic alliances

An increasing number of businesses are forming ____ to sell on the Web.

Web presence

Creating an effective ____ can be critical even for the smallest and newest firms operating on the Web.

information dissemination

A key goal for the Web sites of many not-for-profit organizations is ____.

flexibility

One of the best ways to accommodate a broad range of visitor needs is to build ____ into the Web site's
interface.

loyalty

A seller can create value in a customer relationship by nurturing the customer's trust and developing it into
____.

Ben Shneiderman

Two pioneers of usability testing are ____ and Jakob Nielsen.

Usability

____ is an important element of creating an effective Web presence.

mass media

In the ____ approach, firms prepare advertising and promotional materials about the firm and its products or services.

Addressable media

____ are advertising efforts directed to a known addressee and include mail, telephone calls, and e-mail.

communication modes

Personal contact and mass media approaches are often called ____.

The hard middle

____ refers to markets that are too small to justify a mass media campaign, yet too large to cover using
personal contact.

product, price, promotion, and place

The four Ps of marketing include ____.

Staples

____ uses product categories as a very strong organizing theme in the design of their Web sites.

intermediate

The Web is a(n) ____ step between mass media and personal contact.

shopping cart

A ____ is the part of a Web site that keeps track of selected items for purchase and automates the purchasing process.

connectors

One group of active Internet users, ____, are intensive users of chat rooms, instant messaging services,
electronic greeting card sites, and Web-based e-mail.

touchpoints

Online and offline customer contact points are often called ____.

retained customers

Customers who return to the site one or more times after making their first purchases are called ____.

banner exchange network

A ____ coordinates ad sharing so that other sites run one company's ad while that company's site runs other exchange members' ads.

Active

____ ads generate graphical activity that "floats" over the Web page itself instead of opening in a separate
window.

visit

A(n) ____ occurs when a visitor requests a page from the Web site.

trail visit

The first time that a particular visitor loads a Web site page is called a ____.

count

Some Web pages have banner ads that continue to load and reload as long as the page is open in the visitor's Web browser. Each time the banner ad loads is a(n) ____.

permission

The marketing strategy that includes the practice of sending e-mail messages to people who have requested information on a particular topic or product is part of ____ marketing.

conversion

The ____ rate of an advertising method is the percentage of recipients who respond to an ad or promotion.

customer relationship management

Technology-enabled relationship management is often called ____.

clickstream

The information that a Web site can gather about its visitors is called a(n) ____.

marketspace

Researchers Jeffrey Rayport and John Sviolka distinguish between commerce in the physical world, and
commerce in the information world, which they term the ____.

perceived value

One of the key elements of a brand is ____.

Product differentiation

____ is the first condition that must be met to create a product or service brand.

Relevance

____ is the degree to which the product offers utility to a potential customer.

brand

According to Ted Leonhardt, a ____ is an emotional shortcut between a company and its customer.

emotional

Companies have traditionally used ____ appeals in their advertising and promotion efforts to establish and maintain brands.

URL

A company's ____ should always be included on product packaging and in mass media advertising on radio, television, and in print.

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