The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency
Process of industrial development in which countries evolve economically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. At the highest levels of development, national economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information.
machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire
an early spinning machine with multiple spindles
Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
the social class between the lower and upper classes
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Standard of Living
A measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills and factories.
individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)
another German communist who aided Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto; German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of communist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation.
John Stuart Mill
English Philosopher, Benthamite, wrote "On Liberty", Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation. Advocated right of workers to organize, equality for women, and universal suffrage
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
The city where the first major rail line started in England
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910)
She and her two daughters, and many other women organized a suffragist movement to demand voting rights for women before WWI. She used tactics such as processions to the House of Parliaments, window smashing and bombs in letter boxes. When they were arrested and jailed, the women suffragists went on hunger strikes. The government let the women go when they were sick because of hunger but rearrested them when they recovered (cat-and-mouse strategy). War delayed the suffragist movement.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
doctrine that the useful is the good
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Supply and Demand
an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
The city where the first major rail line ended.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
organized campaign beginning in the mid 1800s which won women the right to vote in all elections, granted by the Nineteenth Amendment in 1970
an economic system that combines private and state enterprises