All motor nuclei originate as what and where?
paired parallel columns of cells in the center of the embryonic neural plate
_____motor columns are on either side of the midline while ______ motor columns are just lateral to those.
Somatic motor column
visceral motor column
The branchial motor columns are ________ to the visceral motor columns only in the region of the branchial arches
what is the region of the branchial arches?
the head and first 6 cervical levels.
The hypoglossal nuclei flank the ________________ of the 4th ventricle.
medial longitudinal sulcus
The hypoglossal nuclei and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve run the length of the
Medial medullary syndrome destroys the _______nerve causing
paralysis of the ipsilateral side of the tongue
Weber's syndrome or any other interruption of the frontobulbar fibers to the hypoglossal nucleus will cause
paresis of the contralateral side of the tongue because only 80% of the frontobulbar fibers cross.
The nuclei prepositi lie between which nuclei?
hypoglossal and abducens nuclei.
The visceral motor column is represented in the medulla by the
dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (X)
dorsal motor nucleus supplies
preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the vagus nerve
The vagus nerve
preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the lungs and most of the digestive tract.
The territory supplied by the vagus nerve ends at the
left colic flexure.
vagus nerve stimulates
postganglionic neurons that adjust the body for rest and repair (R&R
Both preganglionic and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve are
The inferior salivatory nucleus lies immediately
superior to the superior end of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
the inferior salivatory nucleus contributes preganglionic parasympathetic fibers where?
to the glossopharyngeal nerve
superior salivatory contributes preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to which nerve
the facial nerve
the fiber from superior salivatory nucleus to the facial nerve split into which two branches?
The greater petrosal branch
The chorda tympani branch
Where does the greater petrosal branch exit the skull?
what does the greater petrosal branch stimulate?
Where does the chorda tympani branch exit the skull? what does it join?
joins the lingual nerve
where does the chorda tympani branch synapse?
>von Remak's ganglion.
Postganglionic neurons in von Remak's ganglion stimulate what?
salivation in von Ebner's glands.
adult position of the edinger westphal nucleus is
medial to oculomotor nucleus
In the neck the branchial motor column takes over which motor column to form what?
the visceral motor column to form the spinal accessory nucleus.
The spinal accessory nucleus runs from
C6 up to C1
The fibers of the accessory nerve split into the
nerves to the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
medullary portion of the branchial motor column migrates ventrad into the reticular formation and forms
The nucleus ambiguus usually supplies branchial motor fibers to which two nerves
glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.
The contribution of the nucleus ambiguus to the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) becomes the nerve to which muscle
many of the fibers that the nucleus ambiguus contributes to the vagus nerve continue on to leave the vagus nerve where? to become what?
upper thorax to become the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Motor axons of the facial nerve run ________ at first. Upon reaching the floor of the 4th ventricle, they turn_________ and pass through the _________ nucleus.
The facial nerve shares the cerebellopontine angle with which nerve?
the auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve
An acoustic neuroma is likely to cause
hearing problems and facial motor problems on the side of the tumor .
ALL FACIAL PROBLEMS WILL BE IPSILATERAL HERE!
Paresis of the stapedius is innervated by which nerve?
Paresis of the stapedius causes
loud sounds to seem louder without affecting soft sounds.
The facial nerve enters the internal acoustic meatus with which nerve
the sensory ganglion of the facial nerve is called
the geniculate ganglion is located where?
inside the petrous part of the temporal bone
The motor portion of the facial nerve turns _________ at the geniculate ganglion and _______ at the styomastoid foramen through which it exits.
Each facial nucleus receives upper motor neuron input from both
Are the the lower motor neurons for the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii affected by unilateral damage to the frontopontine tract? why or why not
no, they are bilaterally controlled
lower motor neurons for facial muscles below the eyes are controlled by the
contralateral motor cortex
why does damage to frontopontine tract seriously interferes with eating?
pastic paralysis of the contralateral buccinator and orbicularis oris.
The most superior group of branchial motor neurons is the motor nucleus which nerve?
The trigeminal motor nucleus is located where?
dorsolateral tegmentum of the pons
Each motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is innervated by
frontobulbar fibers from both motor cortexes
why will unilateral lesions of the cerebral peduncles do not produce difficulty in jaw movements but may produce difficulty in eating?
the buccinator is innervated by the facial nerve and contralateral to the lesion fails to keep food between the teeth.