Chapter 4

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BIO Test

The two basic types of cells are ______ and ______.

A) prokaryotic . . . eukaryotic

What type of microscope would be best for studying the detailed structure of the surface of a plasma membrane?

D) scanning electron microscope

4) When using a light microscope to view a cell you obtained from scraping under your fingernails, you notice that the cell lacks a nucleus; therefore, you conclude that the cell must be a type of ______ cell.

prokaryotic

One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells ______ prokaryotic cells.

C) have membrane-bound organelles, which are lacking in

In eukaryotic cells, what name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane?

A) cytoplasm

7) You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude that it must be a ______ cell.

E) plant

8) Which of the following is a function of the plasma membrane?

D) regulation of the passage of material into and out of the cell

9) ______ are the major lipids of plasma membranes.

E) Phospholipids

10) When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.

B) have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water

11) The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.

A) phospholipids and most proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane

12) The extracellular coats of cells ______.

A) protect and support cells

13) ______ store the information necessary to produce proteins.

B) Genes

14) The nuclear envelope is composed of ______.

D) a double membrane

15) The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ______.

C) chromatin

16) Most human cells contain ______ chromosomes.

B) 46

17) What name is given to the organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes?

E) nucleolus

18) Many antibiotic drugs are effective against bacteria without hurting humans because the antibiotics rely upon differences in the structure of human and bacterial ______.

E) ribosomes

19) Where does protein synthesis take place?

C) on ribosomes

20) Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via ______.

A) mRNA

21) The endomembrane system includes ______.

D) Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum

22) A hormone that will be secreted from the cell is manufactured by ribosomes _____.

A) attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

23) Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.

C) liver

24) Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include ______.

D) lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification

25) What structures move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus?

C) transport vesicles

26) Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?

C) protein modification

27) Which of the following parts of a cell is (are) most like the shipping center of a company?

A) the Golgi apparatus

28) Lysosomes are responsible for ______.

D) digestion of organic matter inside the cell

29) If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.

c) digest itself

30) Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme.

B) lysosomes

31) Vacuoles are ______.

B) membranous sacs

32) A protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______.

C) in fresh water

33) In plant cells, ______ may contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons.

D) central vacuoles

34) Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ______.

B) cell wall and central vacuole

35) Similar to the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria are ______.

A) surrounded by two membranes

36) Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?

D) chloroplast

37) Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ______.

B) stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP

38) Which of the following is an adaptation to increase the surface area of a part of a cell that is involved in cellular respiration?

A) the cristae of a mitochondrion

39) Microtubules are associated with ______.

A) cilia B) flagella C) chromosome movement D) cell shape E) all of the above

40) Tobacco smokers (and those exposed to tobacco smoke) are at greater risk of an ectopic (tubal) pregnancy. Based on your understanding of the structures of the cytoskeleton, what is the best explanation?

E) Tobacco interferes with the sweeping motion of cilia that aids in the movement of the egg toward the uterus.

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